كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition
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 كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition

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الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition   الثلاثاء 18 يونيو 2013, 8:58 pm

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Handbook of Shaft Alignment

Third Edition
John Piotrowski
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books
Founding Editor
L. L. Faulkner
Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute
and Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio




ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Introduction to Shaft Alignment
1.1 Benefits of Good Machinery Alignment.
1.2 Consequences of Defective Alignment
1.2.1 What Happens to Rotating Machinery When It Is Misaligned
a Little Bit, or Moderately, or Even Severely?
1.3 Four Basic Ingredients Necessary to Insure Alignment Success.
1.4 Eight Basic Steps to Align Machinery5
1.5 How Qualified Are You to Detect and Correct Machinery Misalignment?9
1.6 Why Should People Be Tested on Their Alignment Skills?9
1.7 Experience Evaluation for Machinery Alignment3
1.8 Who Needs to Be Trained and Qualified in Shaft Alignment?3
1.9 Assessing a Person’s Knowledge and Experience Level in Shaft Alignment5
1.10 Alignment Qualification or Certification Testing6
1.11 Periodic Alignment Checks1
1.12 Alignment Record Keeping3
References3
Chapter
Detecting Misalignment on Rotating Machinery5
2.1 The Four Maintenance Philosophies5
2.1.1 Breakdown or Run-to-Failure Maintenance5
2.1.2 Preventive or Time-Based Maintenance6
2.1.3 Predictive or Condition-Based Maintenance6
2.1.4 Proactive or Prevention Maintenance7
2.1.5 Industrial Maintenance Philosophy Survey Results7
2.2 Types of Forces That Occur on Rotating Machinery7
2.2.1 How Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Affect the Vibration Response
of Machinery9
2.2.2 How Vibration Is Measured0
2.2.3 Time and Frequency Domain Vibration Information4
2.2.4 Using Vibration Analysis to Detect Misalignment.6
2.2.5 Relationship between Vibration Amplitude and Misalignment Severity8
2.2.6 Vibration Results from a Controlled Misalignment Test
on a Training Demonstrator.9
2.2.7 Vibration Results from a Controlled Misalignment Test on a Motor and
Pump.2
2.2.8 Before and after Vibration Results Found on a Misaligned
Motor and Pump.3
2.2.9 Why Vibration Levels Often Decrease with Increasing Misalignment.6
2.2.10 Known Vibration Spectral Signatures of Misaligned
Flexible Couplings1
2.2.11 Vibration Characteristics of Misaligned Machinery Supported
in Sliding Type Bearings.1
2.2.12 Using Infrared Thermography to Detect Misalignment1
2.2.13 Power Loss due to Shaft Misalignment.8
2.2.14 The Most Effective Way to Determine if Misalignment Exists8
Bibliography6
Chapter
Foundations, Baseplates, Installation, and Piping Strain.9
3.1 Varying Composition of Earth’s Surface Layer0
3.2 How Do We Hold This Equipment in Place?0
3.2.1 Baseplates2
3.2.1.1 Advantages2
3.2.1.2 Disadvantages4
3.2.2 Soleplates.4
3.2.2.1 Advantages5
3.2.2.2 Disadvantages5
3.2.3 Frames5
3.2.3.1 Advantages6
3.2.3.2 Disadvantages6
3.2.4 Monolithic Rigid Foundations7
3.2.4.1 Advantages8
3.2.4.2 Disadvantages8
3.2.4.3 Tips for Designing Good Foundations8
3.2.4.4 Tips on Installing Foundations and Rotating
Machinery9
3.2.5 Baseplates Attached to Concrete Floors00
3.2.5.1 Advantages01
3.2.5.2 Disadvantages01
3.2.6 Anchor Bolts02
3.2.7 Inertia Blocks.03
3.2.7.1 Advantages03
3.2.7.2 Disadvantages03
3.2.8 Cement, Concrete, and Grout Basics04
3.2.9 Reinforced Concrete.05
3.2.10 Grouting05
3.2.10.1 Traditional Grouting Methods05
3.2.10.2 Suggested Grouting Procedure08
3.2.11 Pregrouted and Solid Metal Baseplates09
3.2.12 Case History of Installing a Baseplate Using Epoxy-Based
Grout11
3.3 Problems to Look for in Your Foundations and Baseplates29
3.3.1 Piping, Ductwork, and Conduit Strain31
3.4 Checking for Excessive Static Piping Forces on
Rotating Equipment34
3.5 Visual Inspection Checklist34
3.6 How Long Will Rotating Machinery Stayed Accurately Aligned?.35
References36
Chapter
Flexible and Rigid Couplings37
4.1 Coupling and Shaft Misalignment Tolerances—What Is the Difference?.37
4.2 The Role of the Flexible Coupling.38
4.3 What to Consider When Specifying a Flexible Coupling38
4.4 Types of Flexible Couplings39
4.4.1 Mechanically Flexible Coupling Designs.41
4.4.1.1 Chain Couplings41
4.4.1.2 Gear Couplings41
4.4.1.3 Metal Ribbon Couplings51
4.4.1.4 Universal Joint Couplings52
4.4.1.5 Flexible Link.53
4.4.1.6 Leaf Spring55
4.4.1.7 Pin Drive.56
4.4.1.8 Elastomeric Couplings56
4.4.2 Metallic Membrane=Disk-Type Coupling Designs59
4.4.2.1 Diaphragm Couplings59
4.4.2.2 Flexible Disc Couplings61
4.5 Rigid Coupling Design62
4.6 Flexible Coupling Lubrication.62
4.7 Coupling Installation63
4.8 Coupling Hub Attachment Methods64
4.9 Keys and Keyways65
4.9.1 Types of Keys66
4.9.2 Straight Bore—Sliding Clearance with Keyways68
4.9.3 Straight Bore—Interference Fit with Keyways68
4.9.4 Splined Shaft with End Lock Nut or Locking Plate70
4.9.5 Tapered Bore—Interference Fit with Keyways70
4.9.6 Coupling Hub to Shaft Surface Contact71
4.9.7 Keyless Taper Bores.72
4.9.8 Proper Interference Fit for Hydraulically Installed Coupling Hubs72
4.9.9 Installation of Keyless Coupling Hubs Using Hydraulic Expansion.73
Bibliography75
Chapter
Preliminary Alignment Checks79
5.1 Foundation and Base Plate Checks79
5.2 Dial Indicator Basics.80
5.3 Damaged, Worn, or Improperly Installed Machinery Component Checks80
5.4 Runout.94
5.5 Machine Housing to Base Plate Interface Problems02
5.6 Verifying That the Soft Foot Has Been Eliminated05
5.6.1 Multiple Bolt–Multiple Indicator Method (Preferred Method)05
5.6.2 Multiple Bolt–Single Indicator Method (Second Choice).07
5.6.3 Shaft Movement Method (Third Choice)12
5.6.4 Single Bolt–Single Indicator Method (Last Choice).12
5.7 Other Methods for Correcting Soft Foot Problems14
Chapter
Shaft Alignment Measuring Tools19
6.1 Dimensional Measurement20
6.2 Classes of Dimensional Measurement Tools and Sensors20
6.2.1 Standard Tape Measures, Rulers, and Straightedges21
6.2.2 Feeler and Taper Gauges21
6.2.3 Slide Caliper23
6.2.4 Micrometers23
6.2.5 Dial Indicators25
6.2.6 Optical Alignment Tooling26
6.2.7 Optical Parallax29
6.2.8 Proximity Probes32
6.2.9 Linear Variable Differential Transformers.33
6.2.10 Optical Encoders35
6.2.11 Lasers and Detectors35
6.2.12 Charge Couple Devices41
6.2.13 Interferometers43
6.3 Sweeping08 Arcs Twice to Measure a Misalignment Condition45
6.4 Why Measurements Are Taken at08 Intervals49
6.5 Rotating Both Shafts to Override a Runout Condition.49
6.6 Tips for Getting Good Alignment Measurements.51
6.7 Engaged Couplings Will Produce Measurement Errors52
6.8 Rim Indicator Setup Variations53
6.9 Rim Readings Indicate Twice the Centerline Offset53
6.10 Validity Rule.53
6.11 Partial Arc Mathematics55
6.11.1 Partial Arc Measurement Procedure60
6.11.2 Partial Arc Measurement Sample Problem62
6.11.3 Pitfalls of Partial Arc Measurements66
6.12 Bracket or Bar Sag67
6.13 Xmas Tree Brackets and Face Sag.69
6.14 Zero Sag Brackets71
6.15 Dial Indicator Shaft Alignment System Manufacturers72
6.15.1 Accushim Systems73
6.15.2 A-Line Systems.74
6.15.3 Benchmark System76
6.15.4 Murray & Garig System76
6.15.5 Peterson Alignment Tools Co. Systems77
6.15.6 Turvac Inc. Systems79
6.15.7 Update International System.82
6.16 Dial Indicator Manufacturers Hardware Specifications82
Bibliography88
Chapter
Correcting Misalignment91
7.1 Installing Machinery for the First Time91
7.2 Bolt-Bound Conditions92
7.3 Last Resort Measures for Bolt-Bound Conditions94
7.4 Machinery Positioning Basics96
7.4.1 Axial Spacing96
7.4.2 Making Corrections in the Vertical Direction98
7.4.3 Lateral Movement01
7.4.4 Vertical Movement04
7.5 Types of Movement Tools.04
7.5.1 Pry and Crowbars and Wedges05
7.5.2 Comealongs and Chain Falls06
7.5.3 Hydraulic Jacks06
7.5.4 Permanent Jackscrews07
7.5.5 Portable Jackscrews and Machinery Positioners07
7.6 What to Do When Things Are Not Working.07
7.7 Misalignment Rantings15
Bibliography17
Chapter
Alignment Modeling Basics19
8.1 Graphing and Modeling Alignment Techniques21
8.2 Basic Alignment Models21
8.3 Scaling the Drive System onto the Alignment Model23
8.4 Cardinal Alignment Graphing and Modeling Rules25
8.4.1 Plot Measurements That Have Been Compensated for Bracket Sag.25
8.4.2 Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount26
8.4.3 Plus Means ‘‘Low’’ and Minus Means ‘‘High’’26
8.4.4 Zero the Indicator on the Side That Is Pointing toward the Top
of the Graph Paper27
8.4.5 Whatever Shaft the Dial Indicator Is Taking Readings on Is the Shaft
That You Want to Draw On the Graph Paper28
8.4.6 Determining Corrective Moves to Make on One Machine from
the Alignment Model32
8.4.7 Overlay Line or Final Desired Alignment Line33
8.4.8 Superimpose Your Boundary Conditions, Movement Restrictions, and
Allowable Movement Envelope34
8.4.8.1 Lateral Movement Restrictions35
8.4.8.2 Where Did the Stationary–Movable Alignment Concept Come
From?37
8.4.8.3 Solving Piping Fit-Up Problems with the Overlay Line.38
Bibliography39
Chapter
Defining Misalignment: Alignment and Coupling Tolerances41
9.1 What Exactly Is Shaft Alignment?.41
9.2 Does Level and Aligned Mean the Same Thing?41
9.3 Measuring Angles42
9.4 Types of Misalignment43
9.5 Definition of Shaft Misalignment43
9.6 Checking the Misalignment Tolerance47
9.7 Shaft versus Coupling Alignment48
9.8 How Straight Are Rotating Machinery Shafts?49
Chapter0
Reverse Indicator Method53
10.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Reverse Indicator Method.53
10.2 Modeling Reverse Indicator Method Using the ‘‘Point-to-Point’’ Technique.55
10.3 Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount58
10.4 Modeling the Reverse Indicator Method Using the Line-to-Point
Technique62
Bibliography66
Chapter1
Face and Rim Methods69
11.1 Mathematical Relationship in Machinery Alignment69
11.2 Sixteen-Point Method70
11.3 Twenty-Point Method71
11.4 Problems with Taking Face Readings74
11.4.1 Preset the Axial Position76
11.4.2 Compensate for Axial Movement with Stationary Indicators76
11.4.3 Compensate for Axial Movement with Rotating Indicators76
11.5 Modeling the Face and Rim Method76
11.6 Artificial Face Surface.85
References88
Chapter2
Double Radial Method.89
12.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Double Radial Method91
12.2 Modeling the Double Radial Method93
Chapter3
Shaft to Coupling Spool Method97
13.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method97
13.2 Modeling the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method98
Chapter4
Face–Face Method05
14.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Face–Face Method05
14.2 Modeling the Face–Face Method05
Chapter5
Electronic and Electro-Optical Shaft Alignment Systems11
15.1 Optical Encoder System11
15.2 Laser–Detector Systems.12
15.2.1 Suggestions for Successful Use of Your Laser Alignment System14
15.2.2 Damalini Systems16
15.2.3 Emerson Process Management System18
15.2.4 Fixturlaser Systems18
15.2.5 Hamar Systems.20
15.2.6 Pru¨ ftechnik Systems21
15.2.7 SPM Instrument Inc. System.24
15.2.8 Vibralign System.25
15.3 Laser System Manufacturers Hardware Specifications26
15.4 Laser System Manufacturers Software Specifications44
References69
Chapter6
Measuring and Compensating for Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement.71
16.1 What Type of Machinery Is Likely to Change Equipment’s Position When
Running?.71
16.2 What Causes Machinery Movement to Occur?72
16.3 Conducting the Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement Survey73
16.4 Taking ‘‘Hot’’ Alignment Measurements Immediately after Shutdown73
16.5 Four General Categories of OL2R Measurements74
16.5.1 Movement of the Centerline of the Machine Cases with Respect
to Its Baseplate or Frame76
16.5.2 Movement of the Centerline of the Machine Cases with Respect
to Some Remote Reference or Observation Point76
16.5.3 Movement of One Machine Case with Respect to Another Machine
Case76
16.5.4 Movement of One Shaft with Respect to Another Shaft.77
16.6 Calculating Machine Case Thermal Expansion Using the Strain Equation77
16.6.1 Using Infrared Thermographic Equipment to Observe Thermal Profiles
of Rotating Equipment79
16.7 Inside Micrometer–Tooling Ball–Angle
Measurement Devices81
16.8 Vertical, Lateral, and Axial OL2R Movement89
16.9 Proximity Probes with Water-Cooled Stands97
16.10 Optical Alignment Equipment99
16.11 Optical Parallax.02
16.12 Using Optical Tooling for Measuring Machinery Movement07
16.13 Establishing Reference Planes10
16.14 Alignment Bars with Proximity Probes.15
16.15 Applying Laser–Detector Systems for OL2R Measurements22
16.16 Ball–Rod–Tubing Connector System31
16.17 Vernier–Strobe System.35
16.18 Instrumented Coupling Systems38
16.18.1 Aligning Rotating Machinery to Compensate for OL2R
Machinery Movement39
16.18.2 Determining the Desired Off-Line Shaft Positions When
Using the Machine Case to Baseplate or Machine Case
to Remote Reference Point Methods40
16.18.3 Determining the Desired Off-Line Shaft Positions When Using
the Machine Case to Machine Case Methods42
16.18.4 How to Determine the ‘‘Shoot for’’ Off-Line Dial Indicator
Readings (Also Known as ‘‘Target Values’’).42
16.18.4.1 Reverse Indicator Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings43
16.18.4.2 Face–Rim Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings48
16.18.4.3 Double Radial Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings48
16.18.4.4 Shaft to Coupling Spool Shoot for Dial
Indicator Readings.48
16.18.4.5 Face–Face Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings48
16.19 Aligning Shafts for Running Conditions (Also Known as Running Alignment
or ‘‘Hot Operating Alignment’’).48
Bibliography60
Chapter7
Aligning Multiple-Element Drive Systems63
17.1 Multiple-Element Drive Train Alignment Laws64
17.2 Multiple-Element Drive Train: Graphing
and Modeling Techniques66
17.3 Multiple-Element Drive Train Modeling—One Set
of Shafts at a Time67
17.4 Multiple-Element Drive System Graphing—Modeling
All the Shafts at One Time68
17.5 Mixing Different Alignment Measurement Methods77
17.6 Modeling Right-Angle Drive Systems78
17.7 Final Comments on Aligning Multiple-Element
Drive Trains88
References90
Chapter8
Aligning V-Belt Drives.91
18.1 Belt Drive Systems—Advantages and Disadvantages91
18.2 V-Belt Standards Information91
18.3 Sheave Information93
18.4 V-Belt Recommendations and Rules of Thumb93
18.5 Sheave and Belt Wear94
18.6 Adjusting Belt Tension95
18.7 Preliminary Alignment Checks for V-Belts
and Sheaves.97
18.8 Types of Sheave Misalignment Conditions99
18.9 Using a Straightedge to Measure Misalignment00
18.10 Measuring the Misalignment at the Sheaves04
18.11 V-Belt Machine Measurements04
18.12 Modeling V-Belt Alignment Problems05
18.13 V-Belt Alignment Modeling Sample Problem06
18.14 Laser Alignment Systems for V-Belts and Sheaves13
Bibliography18
Chapter9
Bore Alignment19
19.1 Aligning a Rotating Shaft with a Stationary Hollow Cylinder19
19.2 Aligning Two Hollow Cylinders22
19.3 Basic Measurement Principles and Nomenclature.26
19.4 Cylinder Alignment Procedure.27
19.5 Bucking in Process31
19.6 Correcting the Misalignment35
19.7 Laser Bore Alignment Systems35
Chapter0
Parallel Alignment.39
20.1 Rough Alignment of Parallel Rolls39
20.2 Using Optical Alignment Equipment for Roll Parallelism.41
20.3 Aligning the Rolls in the Vertical (Up=Down) Direction41
20.4 Aligning the Rolls in the Lateral (Side to Side) Direction42
20.5 Using Laser–Detector Systems to Measure Parallelism51
20.6 Using Roll, Pitch, and Yaw Positions of Rolls
to Measure Parallelism51
20.7 Aligning Rolls and Their Drives—Sample Problem53
Chapter1
Alignment Considerations for Specific Types of Machinery67
21.1 Drivers68
21.1.1 Electric Motors.68
21.1.1.1 Additional Information on Electric Motors.70
21.1.2 Steam Turbines.70
21.1.2.1 Additional Information on Steam Turbines.71
21.1.3 Gas Turbines72
21.1.3.1 Additional Information on Gas Turbines73
21.1.4 Internal Combustion Engines73
21.1.4.1 Additional Information on Internal Combustion Engines74
21.1.5 Horizontally Mounted Centrifugal Pumps.74
21.1.5.1 Additional Information on Horizontally Mounted
Centrifugal Pumps77
21.1.6 Vertically Mounted Centrifugal Pumps78
21.1.6.1 Additional Information on Vertically Mounted
Centrifugal Pumps91
21.1.7 Blowers and Fans92
21.1.7.1 Additional Information on Horizontally Mounted Blowers
and Fans97
21.1.8 Compressors.98
21.1.8.1 Additional Information on Compressors01
21.1.9 Horizontally Mounted Electric Generators02
21.1.9.1 Additional Information on Electric Generators05
21.1.10 Vertically Mounted Electric Generators07
21.1.11 Speed Changing Devices—Gearboxes and Fluid Drives.19
21.1.11.1 Additional Information on Gearboxes and Fluid Drives20
21.1.12 Cooling Tower Fan Drives22
21.1.13 Aligning Ship Rudders24
Bibliography34
Chapter2
The History of Machinery Alignment35
Bibliography51
Appendices53
Appendix A Machinery Data Card53
Appendix B Sample Preliminary Alignment Record Sheet55
Appendix C Sample Installation and Shaft Alignment.57
Appendix D Torque Values (SAE Grade Bolts).59
Appendix E Torque Values (SAE Grade Bolts).61
Appendix F Torque Values (SAE Grade Bolts).63
Appendix G Shaft Alignment and Related U.S. Patents65
Appendix H Shaft Alignment Training Questionnaire69
Appendix I Shaft Alignment Services Questionnaire75
Appendix J Alignment Internet Web Sites81
Appendix K Single Plane Balancing83
Index91

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition   الثلاثاء 18 يونيو 2013, 9:09 pm

 
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition   السبت 09 أبريل 2016, 12:00 pm

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كتاب Handbook of Shaft Alignment -Third Edition

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