كتاب Material Science - S. L. Kakani and Amit Kakani
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 كتاب Material Science - S. L. Kakani and Amit Kakani

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Material Science - S. L. Kakani and Amit Kakani   الإثنين 17 يونيو 2013, 1:03 am

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Material Science

- S. L. Kakani and Amit Kakani

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

1. Classification and Selection of Materials 1
1. Introduction 1
2. Engineering Requirements 2
3. Classification of Engineering Materials 5
4. Organic, Inorganic and Biological Materials 7
5. Semiconductors 9
6. Biomaterials 10
7. (a) Current Trends and Advances in Materials 10
7. (b) Advanced Materials 10
7. (c) Smart Materials (Materials of the future) 11
7. (d) Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology 12
7. (e) Quantum Dots (QDs) 12
7. (f) Spintronics 12
7. (g) Fermionic Condensate Matter 13
8. Level of Material Structure Examination and Observation 13
9. Material Structure 13
10. Engineering Metallurgy 14
11. Selection of Materials 14
Suggested Readings 17
Review Questions 17
Problems 18
Short Question-Answers 18
Objective Questions 19
2. Atomic Structure, and Electronic Configuration 20
1. Introduction 20
2. The Electron 20
3. Protons 21
4. Neutrons 21
5. Atomic Number (Z) 22
6. Atomic Weight and Mass Number 22
7. Isotopes 23
8. Isobars 23
9. Isotones 23
10. Avogadro’s Number (N) 24
11. Atomic Nucleus 24
12. Atomic Models 24
13. Vector Atom Model 43
14. Quantum Numbers 44
15. Pauli Exclusion Principle and Electronic Configuration of Atoms 47
16. Wave Mechanical Picture of the Atom 54
17. Periodic Table 56
Suggested Readings 59
Review Questions 59
Problems 60
Short Questions 61
Objective Questions 61
Short Question-Answers 63
3. Crystal Geometry, Structure and Defects 64
1. Introduction 64
2. Crystals 65
3. Single Crystal 65
4. Whiskers 65
5. Lattice Points and Space Lattice 66
5. (a) Basis 66
6. Unit Cell 67
7. Primitive Cell 67
8. Crystal Classes 68
9. Crystal Systems 69
10. Crystal Structure for Metallic Elements 75
11. Atomic Radius 78
12. Density of Crystal 79
13. Directions, Lattice Planes and Miller Indices 80
14. Interplanar Spacings 83
14. (a) Angle Between Two Planes or Directions 84
15. Representation of Crystal Planes in a Cubic Unit Cell 84
16. Sketching the Plane from the given Miller Indices 86
17. Common Planes in a Simple Cubic Structure 86
18. Co-ordination Number 87
19. Defects or Imperfections in Crystals 95
20. Point Imperfections 96
21. Line Defects or Dislocations 98
22. Surface and Grain Boundary Defects 101
23. Volume Imperfections 104
24. Liquid Crystals 104
25. Anisotropy 105
26. Frank-Read Source 106
27. Theory of Dislocations: Salient Features 107
28. Determination of Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction 110
29. Bragg’s X-ray Spectrometer 112
30. Reciprocal Lattice 115
31. Methods of Determining Crystal Structure 118
32. Electron and Neutron Diffraction 121
viii Contents
33. Crystal Growth 122
Suggested Readings 123
Review Questions 123
Problems 124
Objective Questions 125
Short Questions Answers 127
4. Bonds in Solids 129
1. Introduction 129
2. Types of Bonds 129
3. Forces Between Atoms: Mechanism of Bond Formation and Bond Energy 131
4. Ionic Bonding 134
5. Covalent Bond 140
6. Metallic Bond 142
7. Comparison of Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Bonds 144
8. Secondary Bonds 145
9. Mixed Bonds (More About Secondary Bonds) 147
10. Properties of Solid Materials 148
11. Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding: Electronegativity 150
Suggested Readings 151
Review Questions 151
Problems 152
Objective Questions 153
Short Question Answers 154
5. Electron Theory of Metals 155
1. Introduction 155
2. Metallic Bonding 155
3. Drude-Lorentz Theory 156
4. Sommerfield Free-Electron Theory 156
5. Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function (Electron Energies in a Metal) 159
6. Band Theory of Solids 160
7. Brillouin Zones 162
8. Distinction between Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors 163
9. Electrical Resistance of Materials 164
10. Energy Bands 165
11. Equation of Motion of an Electron 166
12. Resistivity and Conductivity 167
13. Current Density in Metal 167
14. Mobility 168
15. Mean Free Path 171
16. Thermoelectricity 173
17. Origin of the Thermoelectric Effect 174
18. Magnitude and Direction of Thermo E.M.F. 174
19. Uses of Thermocouples 175
Suggested Readings 175
Review Questions 176
Problems 176
Objective Questions 176
Short Question Answers 177
Contents ix
6. Photoelectric Effect 179
1. Introduction 179
2. Experimental Arrangement to Study the Photo Electric Effect 179
3. Failure of Classical Theory 182
4. Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation 183
5. Millikan’s Verification of Einstein’s Equation 184
6. Photoelectric Cells 186
7. Uses of photoelectric Cells 191
Suggested Readings 194
Review Questions 194
Problems 194
Objective Questions 195
Short Question-Answers 196
7. Diffusion in Solids 197
1. Introduction 197
2. Types of Diffusion 197
3. Diffusion Mechanisms 197
4. Diffusion Coefficient: Fick’s Laws of Diffusion 199
5. Dependence of Diffusion Coefficient on Temperature 202
6. Factors Affecting Diffusion Coefficient (D) 202
7. Self Diffusion 203
8. Inter-Diffusion 203
9. Experimental Determination of D using a Diffusion Couple 203
10. Diffusion with Constant Concentration (Case Hardening) 204
11. The Kirkendall Effect 204
12. Diffusion in Oxides and Ionic Crystals 205
13. Surface Diffusion 205
14. Activation Energy of Diffusion 205
15. Applications of Diffusion 206
Suggested Readings 210
Review Questions 210
Problems 211
Objective Questions 211
Short Question-Answers 212
8. Mechanical Properties of Materials and Mechanical Tests 213
1. Introduction 213
2. Common Terms 214
3. Atomic Model of Elastic Behaviour 226
4. Modulus (Y ) as a Parameter of Design 227
5. Fundamental Mechanical Properties 228
Stress-Rupture Test 243
6. Factors affecting Mechanical Properties 244
7. Mechanical Tests 246
8. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) 258
9. Fracture 260
Suggested Readings 272
Review Questions 272
Problems 274
x Contents
Objective Questions 274
Short Question-Answers 276
9. Alloy Systems, Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations 279
1. Introduction 279
2. Alloy Systems 280
3. Solid Solutions 281
4. The Families of Engineering Alloys 283
5. Hume-Rothery’s Rules 285
6. Intermediate Phases or Intermediate Compounds (or Intermediate Solid Solutions) 286
7. Phase Diagrams 286
8. The Phase Rule or Gibb’s Phase Rule or Condensed Phase Rule 287
9. Cooling Curves (Time-Temperature Curves) 288
10. Construction of a Phase Diagram or Constitutional Diagram 289
11. The Lever Rule 290
12. Equilibrium Diagrams for Binary Alloys Forming Eutectic 292
13. Ceramic and Ternary phase Diagrams 294
14. Applications of Phase Diagrams 295
15. Coring 295
16. Phase Transformations 296
17. The Kinetics of Solid State Reactions 296
18. Multiphase Transformations 300
19. Applications of Phase Transformations 300
20. Micro-constituents of Fe-C System 302
21. Allotropic forms of Iron 304
21. Iron-carbon System 305
22. Iron-carbon equilibrium or Phase Diagram 305
23. Modified Iron-carbon Phase Diagram 306
24. Formation and Decomposition of Austenite 309
25. Types and Properties of Carbon-Steels 311
26. Isothermal Transformations-TTT Diagram 312
27. Transformation of Austenite upon Continuous Cooling 314
28. Transformation of Austenite to Martensite 315
29. Metals for Nuclear Energy 316
Suggested Readings 318
Review Questions 318
Problems 319
Short Question Answers 319
Objective Questions 320
10. Heat Treatment 321
1. Introduction 321
2. Heat-Treatment Processes 322
3. Annealing 322
4. Annealing Operations 323
5. Mass Effect 336
6. Principal Equipment for Heat Treatment 336
7. Major Defects in Metals or Alloys due to Faulty Heat Treatment 338
8. Surface Finish After Heat Treatment 339
9. Measurement of High Temperatures and Pyrometers 340
Contents xi
Suggested Readings 344
Review Questions 344
Problems 345
Short Question-Answers 346
Objective Questions 346
11. Deformation of Materials 348
1. Introduction 348
2. Elastic Deformation 348
3. Plastic Deformation 349
4. Deformation by Twinning 355
5. Comparison between Slip and Twinning 356
6. Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials 357
7. Work Hardening or Strain Hardening 357
8. Season Cracking 359
9. Bauschinger Effect 359
10. Anelasticity 359
11. Adiabatic and Isothermal Straining 360
12. Yield Point Phenomenon and Related Effects 361
13. Atomic Diffusion–An Elastic After Effect 363
14. Preferred Orientation 364
15. Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth 365
16. Hot-Working 368
Suggested Readings 371
Review Questions 371
Problems 372
Objective Questions 373
Short Question Answers 373
12. Oxidation and Corrosion 375
1. Introduction 375
2. Corrosion-resistant Materials 375
3. Electrochemical Corrosion 375
4. Galvanic (Two-Metal) Corrosion 380
5. Corrosion Rates 381
6. High Temperature Oxidation or Dry Corrosion 382
7. Passivity 382
8. Environmental Effects 383
9. Specific Forms of Corrosion 383
10. Corrosion Prevention and Control 388
11. Corrosion Monitoring and Management 394
Suggested Readings 396
Review Questions 396
Problems 397
Short Question-Answers 397
Objective Questions 398
13. Thermal and Optical Properties of Materials 400
Section A: Thermal Properties 400
1. Introduction 400
xii Contents
2. Heat Capacity 400
3. Theoretical Models 403
4. Thermal Expansion 406
5. Thermal Conductivity (K) 409
6. Refractories 414
7. Thermal Stresses 415
8. Thermal Fatigue 416
9. Thermal Shock 416
10. Melting Point (M.P.) 416
Section B: Optical Properties 418
1. Optical Properties 418
2. Interactions of Light with Solids 418
3. Atomic and Electronic Interactions 418
4. Optical Properties of Metals 419
5. Optical Properties of Non metals 420
6. Applications of Optical Phenomena 424
Suggested Readings 426
Review Questions 427
Problems 428
Objective Questions 428
Short Question-Answers 430
14. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Materials 431
1. Introduction 431
2. Electrical Conduction 431
3. Electrical Conductivity () 433
4. Electronic and Ionic Conduction 435
5. Band Structure in Solids 435
6. Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 438
7. Electrical Resistivity of Metals 440
8. Electrical Characteristics of Alloys Used for Commercial Purposes 442
9. Mechanisms of Strengthening in Metals 442
10. Insulators 443
11. Dielectrics 445
12. Magnetism 456
Suggested Readings 480
Review Questions 480
Problems 482
Objective Questions 483
Short Question Answers 484
15. Semiconductors 488
1. Introduction 488
2. Intrinsic Semiconductors 489
3. Extrinsic Semiconductors 494
4. Semiconductor Devices 500
5. The Transistor 514
6. Semiconductors in Computers 518
7. Microelectronic Circuits 518
8. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) 519
Contents xiii
9. Quantum Dots (QDs) 520
10. Spintronics 520
Suggested Readings 522
Review Questions 523
Problems 523
Objective Questions 524
Short Question Answers 525
16. Superconductivity and Superconducting Materials 526
1. Introduction 526
2. Superconducting Materials 529
3. HTSC Cuprate Materials Characteristics 532
4. Characteristic Properties of Superconductors 535
5. Josephson Effects 540
6. Properties of HTSC Oxides 541
7. Thermodynamics of a Superconductor 542
8. Theory of Superconductivity 544
9. Quantum Tunneling 547
10. Applications of Superconductivity 548
Suggested Readings 551
Review Questions 551
Short Questions 552
Problems 552
Objective Questions 553
Short Question Answers 553
17. Organic Materials: Polymers and Elastomers 555
1. Introduction 555
2. Polymers 555
3. Broad Classifications 558
4. Basic Concepts of Polymer Science 559
5. Molecular Configurations 567
6. Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 568
7. Copolymers 568
8. Polymer Crystallinity 569
9. Defects in Polymers 570
10. Mechanical Properties of Polymers 570
11. Mechanisms of Deformation 572
12. Crystallization, Melting and Glass Transition Phenomena in Polymers 572
13. Polymer Types 573
14. Miscellaneous Applications of Polymers 578
15. Advanced Polymeric Materials 579
16. Polymer Additives 580
17. Manufacturing Processes Involving Polymers 582
18. Reinforced Polymers 584
19. Behaviour of Polymers 585
20. Fabrication of Fibres and Films 586
21. Wood 587
Suggested Readings 588
Review Questions 589
xiv Contents
Problems 590
Objective Questions 590
Short Questions Answers 591
18. Composites 593
1. Introduction 593
2. General Characteristics 594
3. Particle-Reinforced Composites 596
4. Fibre-Reinforces Composites 598
5. Fabrication 609
Suggested Readings 611
Review Questions 611
Problems 611
Objective Questions 612
Short Question Answers 612
19. Nanostructured Materials 614
1. Introduction 614
2. Production Methods for CNTs 621
3. Key Issues in Nanomanufacturing 624
4. Mechanical and Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 624
5. Nanostructures in Motion 624
6. Nanomaterial Advantage 624
Suggested Readings 626
Review Questions 626
Appendix 1: Units, Conversion Factors, Physical Constants 627
Units 627
Appendix 2: Conversion Factors 630
Appendix 3: Physical Constants 632
Appendix 4: Prefix Names, Symbols and Multiplication Factors 633
Subject Index 634

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