عدد المساهمات : 14303
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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|موضوع: كتاب ASM Metals Handbook Vol 04 Heat Treating السبت 30 مارس 2013, 12:51 pm|| |
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ASM Metals Handbook Vol 04 Heat Treating
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In compiling this new volume on heat treating, the challenge was to produce a book that contained subject matter strongly
oriented toward industrial practice but that did not omit discussions of the underlying metallurgical fundamentals. With
previously published ASM Handbooks devoted to heat treating, the omission of material on fundamentals was justified by
either space limitations and/or the availability of other ASM books that described the physical metallurgy associated with
thermal treatments. For example, when the 8th Edition was published in 1964, only 306 pages were related to heat
treating (this Volume was divided between heat-treating technology and surface cleaning and finishing). As such, readers
were referred to the classic book Principles of Heat Treatment by M.A. Grossmann and E.C. Bain, which was also
published in 1964 by ASM. A similar situation arose in 1981 when the expanded 9th Edition Heat Treating Handbook
was published. In the year prior to this publication, a completely revised version of the Grossmann/Bain book was
prepared by G. Krauss and subsequently published by ASM.
The 1980s proved to be a dynamic period for heat-treating technology--a decade that witnessed the introduction of new
alloys and processes as well as new "tools" for understanding the response of heat-treated materials. For example, new
alloys under active development or brought to market during the 1980s that were not described in previous heat-treating
Handbooks included duplex stainless steels, microalloyed (HSLA) steels, low-cobalt maraging steels, austempered ductile
iron, directionally solidified and single-crystal superalloys, and aluminum-lithium alloys.
Changes in processing include improvements in continuous annealing, induction heating, and surface hardening
operations using lasers or electron beams, the commercial viability of plasma-assisted case-hardening processes, and
advances in thermomechanical processing.
But by far the most dramatic changes in heat-treat technology that have marked the past decade have been those involving
newly developed tools for improving process characterization and process control. These include improved
instrumentation for controlling furnace temperature, furnace atmosphere, and surface carbon content, the practical
application of statistical process control (SPC), and the use of computer modelling for both the prediction of hardness
profiles after quenching and the quantitative modelling of properties after tempering or case hardening. It is this latter
category of computer modelling that necessitates the inclusion of material on the basic principles or fundamentals of heat
treating. For example, there are several articles in this Volume that deal with computer-assisted prediction of steel
hardening and hardenability as a function of heat treatment parameters. In this regard, the primary measures of steel
hardening are the end-quench hardenability curves (Jominy curves), isothermal transformation (IT) curves, and
continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves. In order to understand how computer programs can be used to calculate
such diagrams, some brief background information is provided in several key articles to emphasize how these diagrams
make possible the selection of steel and the design of proper heat treatments.
Volume 4 has been organized into eight major sections:
· Heat Treating of Steel
· Surface Hardening of Steel
· Heat-Treating Equipment
· Process and Quality Control Considerations
· Heat Treating of Cast Irons
· Heat Treating of Tool Steels
· Heat Treating of Stainless Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
· Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys
A total of 71 articles are contained in these sections. Of these, 16 are new, 17 were completely rewritten, with the
remaining articles revised and/or expanded. In addition, several important appendices supplement the Volume. These
include a glossary of terms, a temper color chart for steels, and tabulated austenitizing temperatures for steels. A review
of the content of the major sections is given below; highlighted are differences between the present volume and its 9th
Edition predecessor. Table 1 summarizes the content of the principal sections.
Table 1 Summary of contents of Volume 4, Heat Treating, of the ASM Handbook
Section title Number of articles Pages Figures(a) Tables(b) References
Heat Treating of Steel 16 253 355 123 430
Surface Hardening of Steel 18 203 305 69 324
Heat-Treating Equipment 6 62 83 17 43
Process and Quality Control Considerations 9 135 130 43 190
Heat Treating of Cast Irons 5 42 67 19 27
Heat Treating of Tool Steels 4 56 48 34 20
Heat Treating of Stainless Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys 3 51 41 53 23
Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys 10 124 147 77 72
Total 71 926 1176 435 1129
(a) Total number of figure captions; most figures include more than one illustration.
(b) Does not include in-text tables or tables that are part of figures
Heat Treating of Steel. This section begins with two entirely new articles that introduce the reader to the physical
metallurgy of heat-treated steels and newly developed methodologies for quantitatively predicting transformation
hardening in steels. These companion papers set the stage for a series of articles that describe specific types of heat
treatments. Of particular note is the definitive treatise on "Quenching of Steel" by Bates, Totten, and Brennan. Featuring
some 95 figures and 23 tables, this 55 page article has been substantially revised and expanded from previous Editions.
Other highlights include new articles on continuous annealing, cryogenic treatment of steel, and thermomechanical
processing of microalloyed steel. The section concludes with completely rewritten articles on heat-treat procedures for
ultrahigh strength steels, maraging steels, and powder metallurgy ferrous alloys.
Surface Hardening of Steel. As explained in the introductory article to this section, emphasis has been placed on
thermally driven, diffusion processes that induce solid-state transformation hardening. These processes include flame
hardening, high-energy processes that utilize laser beams or electron beams, and conventional surface treatments such as
carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding.
It is important to note the significant processing characteristics between the aforementioned processes and surface
modification techniques 'such as ion implantation, PVD/CVD coatings, and surface melting/surface alloying processes
that will be described in future volumes of this Handbook series. For example ion nitriding, which is described in this
section, and nitrogen ion implantation are two distinctly different techniques for producing a case hardened surface layer.
The implementation of each process, the characteristics of the case layers produced, the metallurgical strengthening
mechanisms generated, and the economics and end use of each, are quite different.
Ion nitriding is a thermally driven, equilibrium, diffusion process that produces a relatively deep (100 to 400 m),
hardened, case layer. Nitrogen ion implantation is a non-thermal, non-equilibrium, physically driven, ballistic alloying
process, which produces a relatively shallow (1 μm), extremely hard case layer. Ion nitriding is implemented at high
temperatures in a glow discharge atmosphere, while nitrogen ion implantation is carried out at room temperature, at high
vacuum, in a dedicated atomic particle accelerator. Case layer strengthening in ion nitrided surfaces is due primarily to
formation of transition metal nitride precipitates, while strengthening in nitrogen ion implanted surfaces is due primarily
to dislocation pinning. A summary of processing comparisons is given in Table 2.
Table 2 Process characteristics comparison
Process Type Process
Ion nitriding Thermal
0.2-5.0 400 62-67
Nitrogen ion Physical 1-6 <150 <300 10-6 1 80-90
(a) Value for steel
Key additions to this section include articles that describe increasingly used processes such as plasma-assisted case
hardening methods, boriding, and the Toyota diffusion process. Of critical importance to this section is the article
"Microstructures and Properties of Carburized Steels" by G. Krauss which examines the correlation between processing,
structure, and resulting fatigue, fracture, and wear properties of case-hardened steels.
Heat-Treating Equipment. Types of heat-treating furnaces, the materials used to construct furnaces, and the
advantages and limitations associated with each are described next. More emphasis has been placed on furnace energy
efficiency and proper design than in previous Editions.
Process and quality control considerations are more important than ever to heat treaters. Reliable sensors,
computerized control equipment, and process control of heating and cooling and furnace atmospheres are described in
detail in this section. Supplementing this material are new articles on the recognition and prevention of defects in heattreated
parts and the use of computer programs for designing heat-treat operations and predicting the properties of heattreated
Because the heat-treating industry is being challenged to introduce statistical concepts in order to minimize variability and
ensure consistent quality of heat-treated parts, an important article on "Statistical Process Control of Heat-Treating
Operations" is also included. Emphasis is on the practical application of SPC concepts in order to demonstrate to heat
treaters how to identify critical process parameters that influence product quality and how to establish methods to monitor
and evaluate such parameters.
Heat treating of cast irons is described in five articles. The "Introduction to Heat Treating of Cast Irons" was
completely rewritten for this Volume. The remaining four articles contain new information on austempering of ductile
iron and procedures for heat treating highly alloyed abrasion-resistant, corrosion-resistant, and heat-resistant cast irons.
Heat Treating of Tool Steels. Because tool steels must be processed to develop specific combinations of wear
resistance, resistance to deformation or fracture under high loads, and resistance to softening under elevated temperatures,
proper heat treating is critical. This section describes the procedures and equipment necessary to meet these criteria.
Heat Treating of Stainless Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys. Procedures and process control for heat treating
the principal types of stainless steels and superalloys are discussed in this section. The article on "Heat Treating of
Superalloys" was completely rewritten for this Volume and includes information on both wrought and cast alloys, many
of which are used in the aerospace industry. The article on refractory metals and alloys is completely new to the
Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys. The principles which govern heat treatment of nonferrous alloys are first
described in this final section of the Handbook. Differences between ferrous and nonferrous processing are highlighted.
Nine articles follow on heat treating of specific classes of nonferrous alloys.
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