كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 3
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 3

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عدد المساهمات : 14273
التقييم : 22960
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 3   الجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 2:21 pm

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How Things Are Made Volume 3
كيف تصنع الأشياء - الجزء الثالث

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Accordion
The accordion is a portable, freely vibrating reed instrument. It consists of a keyboard and bass
casing that are connected by a collapsible bellows.
Air Conditioner
Residential and commercial space-cooling demands are increasing steadily throughout the world
as what once was considered a luxury is now seemingly a necessity. Air-conditioning
manufacturers have played a big part in making units more affordable by increasing their
efficiency and improving components and technology.
Airship
An airship is a large lighter-than-air gas balloon that can be navigated by using engine-driven
propellers. There are three types of airships: rigid (has an internal metal frame to maintain the
envelope's shape); semi-rigid (rigid keels run the length of the envelope to maintain its shape);
and non-rigid (internal pressure of the lifting gas, usually helium, maintains the envelope's
shape).
Animation
Animation is a series of still drawings that, when viewed in rapid succession, gives the
impression of a moving picture. The word animation derives from the Latin words anima
meaning life, and animare meaning to breathe life into.
Aspartame
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in reduced calorie foods. It is derived primarily from
two naturally occurring amino acids chemically combined and designated by the chemical name
N-L-aaspartyl-L-phenylalanine-l-methyl ester (APM).
Automatic Drip Coffee Maker
Coffee was first cultivated in Ethiopia in the sixth century A.D. The coffee berries were
consumed whole, or a wine was made out of the fermented fruits.
Ballpoint Pen
A ballpoint pen is a writing instrument which features a tip that is automatically refreshed with
ink. It consists of a precisely formed metal ball seated in a socket below a reservoir of ink.
Black Box
Black box is a generic term used to describe the computerized flight data recorders carried by
modern commercial aircraft. The Flight Data Recorder (FDR) is a miniaturized computer system
which tracks a variety of data regarding the flight of the plane, such as airspeed, position, and
altitude.
Camera
Photography has staked its claim as America's favorite hobby, and today, cameras are available
in sizes and shapes to suit the needs of every kind of photographer and budget. Much like Henry
Ford wanted a Model T in every driveway, George Eastman thought every consumer should be
able to afford a camera.
CAT Scanner
A computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanner is a medical
imaging tool that provides clear pictures of the internal structures of the body. Utilizing a beam
of x rays and a radiation detector, it supplies data to a computer, which then constructs a threedimensional
image.
Champagne
Champagne is the ultimate celebratory drink. It is used to toast newlyweds, applaud
achievements, and acknowledge milestones.
Cigar
A cigar is a tobacco leaf wrapped around a tobacco leaf filling. Bigger than a cigarette, and
taking longer to smoke, the cigar is considered by aficionados to be the finest way to enjoy
tobacco.
Clarinet
The clarinet is a woodwind instrument played with a single reed. Clarinets come in many
different sizes, with different pitch ranges.
Cultured Pearl
Thanks to its rarity and beauty, the pearl is as prized as a precious gem, but it is not formed by
geologic processes like precious and semi-precious stones. Instead, the pearl is a product of some
species of oysters and other shell-fish, formally called bivalve mollusks.
Dental Drill
The dental drill is a tool used by dentists to bore through tooth enamel as well as to clean and
remove plaque from the tooth's surface. It is composed primarily of a handpiece, an air turbine,
and a tungsten carbide drill bit.
Denture
Dentures, or false teeth, are fixed or removable replacements for teeth. Tooth replacement
becomes necessary when the tooth and its roots have been irreparably damaged, and the tooth
has been lost or must be removed.
EKG Machine
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is a device which graphically records the electrical activity
of the muscles of the heart. It is used to identify normal and abnormal heartbeats.
Escalator
An escalator is a power-driven, continuous moving stairway designed to transport passengers up
and down short vertical distances. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian
traffic in places where elevators would be impractical.
Fertilizer
Fertilizer is a substance added to soil to improve plants' growth and yield. First used by ancient
farmers, fertilizer technology developed significantly as the chemical needs of growing plants
were discovered.
Fiberboard
Composite forest products, or engineered wood, refer to materials made of wood that are glued
together. In the United States, roughly 21 million tons (21.3 million metric tons) of composite
wood are produced annually.
Football
Although the game of football as we know it today supposedly dates back to the nineteenth
century, there is some evidence to support that the ancient Greeks played a version of football
they called harpaston. This game apparently took place on a rectangular field with goal lines on
both ends.
Football Helmet
Amateur and professional football players alike wear protective gear to reduce the likelihood of
sustaining injury while playing the game of football. The football helmet with its chin strap, face
mask, and optional mouth guard is one example of protective gear.
Gas Mask
A gas mask is a device designed to protect the wearer from noxious vapors, dust, and other
pollutants. Masks may be designed to carry their own internal supply of fresh air, or they may be
outfitted with a filter to screen out harmful contaminants.
Golf Ball
Golf, a game of Scottish origin, is one of the most popular sports in the world. In the United
States alone more than 24 million people play golf, including over 8,000 professional players.
Gummy Candy
Gummy candy is a unique candy composed of gelatin, sweeteners, flavorings, and colorings.
Because of its nature it can be molded into literally thousands of shapes, making it one of the
most versatile confection products ever.
Hair Dye
Hair dye is one of the oldest known beauty preparations, and was used by ancient cultures in
many parts of the world. Records of ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, Persians, Chinese, and
early Hindu peoples all mention the use of hair colorings.
Harmonica
The harmonica, or mouth organ, is a hand-held rectangular musical instrument. As the musician
inhales and exhales into evenly spaced air channels, the metal reeds within produce musical
tones.
Harp
A harp is a musical instrument consisting of a triangular frame open on both sides which
contains a series of strings of varying lengths that are played by plucking. The length of the
string determines how high or low a sound it makes.
Heat Pump
As a result of society's increasing concern for ecological and environmental issues, the demand
for more efficient ways to utilize heat and energy is rising. The heat pump industry uses
technological advances such as year-round space heating to displace heat energy to a more useful
location and purpose.
Hologram
A hologram is a flat surface that, under proper illumination, appears to contain a threedimensional
image. A hologram may also project a three-dimensional image into the air—a
lifelike image that can be photographed although it cannot be touched.
Ice Cream
Our love affair with ice cream is centuries old. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews were
known to chill wines and juices.
Instant Coffee
Instant (or soluble) coffee has been widely used for decades because of its convenience. During
the height of its popularity in the 1970s, nearly a third of the roasted coffee imported into the
United States was converted into an instant product, resulting in annual sales of more than 200
million pounds.
Latex
A latex is a colloidal suspension of very small polymer particles in water and is used to make
rubber.
Lumber
Lumber is a generic term that applies to various lengths of wood used as construction materials.
Pieces of lumber are cut lengthwise from the trunks of trees and are characterized by having
generally rectangular or square cross sections, as opposed to poles or pilings, which have round
cross sections.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical device that uses a magnetic field and the natural
resonance of atoms in the body to obtain images of human tissues. The basic device was first
developed in 1945, and the technology has steadily improved since.
Maple Syrup
The Algonquin Indians called it sinzibukwud, meaning drawn from wood. It was the Algonquins
and the other Native American tribes of the northeastern United States and southeast Canada
who first showed French and British settlers how to draw the sap of Acer saccharum, the sugar
maple, and reduce it into a sweet, thick liquid known today as maple syrup.
Marker
Markers, or felt-tip pens, serve a variety of functions. Children use them to make bright, colorful
drawings.
Mascara
Mascara is a cosmetic applied to the eyelashes to make the lashes thicker, longer, and darker. It
is one of the most ancient cosmetics known, having been used in Egypt possibly as early as 4000
B.C.
Match
A match is a small stick of wood or strip of cardboard with a solidified mixture of flammable
chemicals deposited on one end. When that end is struck on a rough surface, the friction
generates enough heat to ignite the chemicals and produce a small flame.
Microscope
A microscope is an instrument used to produce enlarged images of small objects. The most
common kind of microscope is an optical microscope, which uses lenses to form images from
visible light.
Mosquito Repellent
Mosquito repellents are substances that are designed to make surfaces unpleasant or unattractive
to mosquitos. They typically contain an active ingredient that repels mosquitos as well as
secondary ingredients, which aid in delivery and cosmetic appeal.
Nicotine Patch
A nicotine patch is a device designed to deliver nicotine through the skin and into the blood
stream. It is used to help prevent the craving for nicotine that smokers experience when
attempting to quit.
Olive Oil
The olive and the tree on which it grows have been revered since ancient times. Archaeological
digs have unearthed evidence that olive trees existed on the island of Crete in 3500 B.C.
Pacemaker
The pacemaker is an electronic biomedical device that can regulate the human heartbeat when its
natural regulating mechanisms break down. It is a small box surgically implanted in the chest
cavity and has electrodes that are in direct contact with the heart.
Paper Currency
The existence of money as a means of buying or selling goods and services dates back to at least
3000 B.C., when the Sumerians began using metal coins in place of bartering with barley. The
use of paper money began in China during the seventh century, but its uncertain value, as
opposed to the more universally accepted value of gold or silver coins, led to widespread
inflation and state bankruptcy.
Piano
The piano may be the best known and loved of all musical instruments. It also has the broadest
range of any instrument, so music for all other instruments can be composed on it.
Potato Chip
Potato chips are thin slices of potato, fried quickly in oil and then salted.
Propane
Propane is a naturally occurring gas composed of three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.
It is created along with a variety of other hydrocarbons (such as crude oil, butane, and gasoline)
by the decomposition and reaction of organic matter over long periods of time.
Ribbon
Ribbons are useful and decorative fabrics that are almost infinite in their variety, texture, and
color. Modern ribbons are manufactured from every kind of fabric, from velvet and satin to
synthetics like nylon and rayon.
Saw
A saw is a hand tool with a toothed blade used to cut hard materials such as wood or bone. They
are among the oldest known tools.
Scissors
Scissors are cutting instruments consisting of a pair of metal blades connected in such a way that
the blades meet and cut materials placed between them when the handles are brought together.
The word shears is used to describe larger instruments of the same kind.
Screw
Screws are part of a family of threaded fasteners that includes bolts and studs as well as
specialized screws like carpenter's wood screws and the automotive cap screw. The threads (or
grooves) can run right handed or left, tapered, straight, or parallel.
Sewing Machine
Before 1900, women spent many of their daylight hours sewing clothes for themselves and their
families by hand. Women also formed the majority of the labor force that sewed clothes in
factories and wove fabrics in mills.
Shampoo
Shampoos are cleaning formulations used for a wide range of applications, including personal
care, pet use, and carpets. Most are manufactured in roughly the same manner.
Silver
Silver was one of the earliest metals known to humans, and it has been considered a precious
metal since ancient times. Silver has been used as a form of currency by more people throughout
history than any other metal, even gold.
Sofa
Sometimes called a couch or a davenport, a sofa is a long upholstered seat with both arms and a
back. Today, it is a common luxury that indicates humans' progression away from the nomadic
"pack and evacuate" lifestyle of our recent past.
Solar Heating System
In just one second, the Sun gives off 13 million times the energy that is generated by all the
electricity consumed in one year in the United States. Only one millionth of the Sun's energy
reaches Earth, but this scant amount would be more than sufficient to meet the energy
requirements of our entire planet.
Soy Sauce
Soy sauce is one of the world's oldest condiments and has been used in China for more than
2,500 years. It is made from fermenting a mixture of mashed soybeans, salt, and enzymes.
Sunglasses
Sunglasses are eyewear designed to help protect the eyes from excessive sunlight. Eyes are
extremely light sensitive and can be easily damaged by overexposure to radiation in the visible
and nonvisible spectra.
Surge Suppressor
Power line disturbances occur on an average of four times a day, according to studies by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). These disturbances—increases in current
that can damage electronic devices plugged into outlets—may be caused by lightning or other
weather-related incidents; traffic accidents affecting power lines; the use of electrical products
such as motors, compressors, and fluorescent lights; high-powered electrical equipment and
voltage fluctuations initiated by a power company; and high-frequency noise.
Syringe
The hypodermic syringe, also known as the hypodermic needle, is a device used by medical
professionals to transfer liquids into or out of the body. It is made up of a hollow needle, which
is attached to a tube and a plunger.
Television
Among the technical developments that have come to dominate our lives, television is surely one
of the top ten. In the United States, more than 98% of households own at least one television set
and 61% receive cable television.
Tennis Racket
The game of tennis dates back officially to 1873, when the first book of rules was published by
Major Walter Clopton Wingfield of north Wales. But tennis has antecedents in ball games played
with the hand that evolved in Europe before the Renaissance.
Tissue with Lotion
Facial tissues belong to a class of paper products used extensively for personal hygiene in
modern society. Other products of this type include paper towels, napkins, and sanitary (or toilet)
tissue.
Toothpaste
Toothpaste has a history that stretches back nearly 4,000 years. Until the mid-nineteenth century,
abrasives used to clean teeth did not resemble modern toothpastes.
Vitamin
Vitamins are organic compounds that are necessary in small amounts in animal and human diets
to sustain life and health. The absence of certain vitamins can cause disease, poor growth, and a
variety of syndromes.
Wallpaper
Wallpaper is a nonwoven (paper) or woven (fabric) backing, decoratively printed for application
to walls of a residence or business. Wallpaper is not considered essential to the decoration of a
structure; however, it has become a primary method by which to impart style, atmosphere, or
color into a room.
Wig
Wigs are worn for either prosthetic, cosmetic, or convenience reasons. People who have lost all
or part of their own hair due to illness or natural baldness can disguise the condition.
Yarn
Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of
fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form.
Accordion
The accordion is a portable, freely vibrating reed instrument. It consists of a keyboard and bass
casing that are connected by a collapsible bellows. Within the instrument are metal reeds, which
create sound when air, generated by the movement of the bellows, flows around them and causes
them to vibrate. The accordion is constructed from hundreds of pieces, and much of it is hand
assembled. First constructed in the early nineteenth century, the accordion continues to evolve
into an ever more versatile instrument.

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كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 3

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