كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 7
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 كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 7

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 7   الجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 2:19 pm

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How Things Are Made Volume 7
كيف تصنع الأشياء - الجزء السابع

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Air Purifier
Air purifiers evolved in response to people's reactions to allergens like pollen, animal dander,
dust, and mold spores. Reactions (sneezing, runny nose, scratchy eyes, and even more severe
consequences such as asthma attacks) are the result of antigens found in the home.
Amber
Although considered a gem, amber is a wholly-organic material derived from the resin of extinct
species of trees. In the dense forests of the Middle Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, between 10
and 100 million years ago, these resin-bearing trees fell and were carried by rivers to coastal
regions.
Aneroid Barometer
Earth's atmosphere weighs about 6.5 × 1021 (5.98 × 1024). Spread out across Earth's entire
surface area, it exerts an air (barometric) pressure of about 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi)
(101 kilopascals [kPa]) at sea level.
Bank Vault
A bank vault is a secure space where money, valuables, records, and documents can be stored.
Vaults protect their contents with armored walls and a tightly fashioned door closed with a
complex lock.
Binocular
Modern binoculars consist of two barrel chambers with an objective lens, eyepiece, and a pair of
prisms inside. The prisms reflect and lengthen the light, while the objective lenses enhance and
magnify images due to stereoscopic vision.
Brandy
The name brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn, meaning "burnt wine." The name is
apt as most brandies are made by applying heat, originally from open flames, to wine. The heat
drives out and concentrates the alcohol naturally present in the wine.
Breath Alcohol Tester
There is a serious need to ensure that alcohol-impaired drivers stay off the roads. It is estimated
that one person is killed every 32 minutes and another person is injured every 26 seconds in
alcohol-related accidents.
Bullet
A bullet is a projectile, often a pointed metal cylinder, that is shot from a firearm. The bullet is
usually part of an ammunition cartridge, the object that contains the bullet and that is inserted
into the firearm.
Cash Register
The cash register is an essential business tool that is often overlooked as one of the transforming
mechanizations of the industrial age. A cash register records the amount of a sale, supplies a
receipt to the customer, and keeps a permanent journal of daily transactions.
Catheter
A catheter is a flexible tube made of latex, silicone, or Teflon that can be inserted into the body
creating a channel for the passage of fluid or the entry of a medical device. For many years, the
epidermal catheters used were plain tubes made of available industrial compounds, and design
was largely based on current need.
Corset
The corset is an undergarment traditionally made of stiffened material laced tight to the body in
order to slim a woman's waist. Evidence shows that some type of waist-cinching garment was
worn by Cretan women between 3000 and 1500 B.C., but narrow waists became the fashion
among women in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Cyclotron
The modern cyclotron uses two hollow D-shaped electrodes held in a vacuum between poles of
an electromagnet. A high frequency AC voltage is then applied to each electrode.
Diving Bell
Commercial divers doing underwater construction or salvage often use a diving bell for
transportation to the underwater site. Use of a diving bell (also known as a Personal Transfer
Capsule, PTC) and a pressure chamber extends the amount of time a diver can safely stay
underwater.
Dry Ice
Dry ice is the name given to carbon dioxide when it is in a solid state. Carbon dioxide is found in
the earth's atmosphere; it is a gas that humans exhale and plants use for photosynthesis.
EEG Machine
An electroencephalogram (EEG) machine is a device used to create a picture of the electrical
activity of the brain. It has been used for both medical diagnosis and neurobiological research.
Electric Guitar
Developed in the early part of the twentieth century, the electric guitar has become one of the
most important instruments in popular music. Today's solid-body electric guitar derives from the
acoustic guitar, an instrument first introduced in America as the Spanish-style guitar.
Electric Tea Kettle
The sole purpose of the tea kettle is to boil water. Water for coffee and for many cooking uses
does not have to be boiled, but fresh, cool water that is brought fully to a boil is essential for
tasty tea.
External Defibrillator
An external defibrillator is a device that delivers an electric shock to the heart through the chest
wall. This shock helps restore the heart to a regular, healthy rhythm.
Fabric Softener
A fabric softener is a liquid composition added to washing machines during the rinse cycle to
make clothes feel better to the touch. These products work by depositing lubricating chemicals
on the fabric that make it feel softer, reduce static cling, and impart a fresh fragrance.
Felt
Most fabrics are woven, meaning they are constructed on a loom and have interlocking warp (the
thread or fiber that is strung lengthwise on the loom) and weft (the thread that cuts across the
warp fiber and interlocks with it) fibers that create a flat piece of fabric. Felt is a dense, nonwoven
fabric and without any warp or weft.
Fluoride Treatment
A fluoride treatment is a mineral solution applied to teeth in order to strengthen them and help
prevent cavities. Fluoride containing products include commercially available toothpaste and
mouth rinse, as well as more concentrated liquids and gels used professionally by dentists.
Fountain Pen
Humans have used various instruments to convey thoughts and feelings. Man's first writing
instrument was his finger, using it to form symbols in the dirt.
Furnace
A furnace is a device that produces heat. Not only are furnaces used in the home for warmth,
they are used in industry for a variety of purposes such as making steel and heat treating of
materials to change their molecular structure.
Glucometer Test Kit
Diabetes mellitus effects an estimated 16 million people in the United States. An additional five
million people have the disease and do not realize it.
Grenade
Grenades come in a variety of sizes and shapes depending on their function, but all have two
things in common. First, they are hollow to allow filling with explosive or chemical filler.
Guillotine
The guillotine evokes images of horrifying and bloody public executions during the French
Revolution in the eighteenth century. Many historians consider this device the first execution
method that lessened the victim's pain and the first step in raising public awareness of the
morality of the death penalty.
Hair Dryer
A hair dryer, also known as a blow dryer, is an electrical device used to dry and style hair. It uses
an electric fan to blow air across a heating coil; as the air passes through the dryer it heats up.
Handcuffs
Handcuffs are standard law enforcement and security industry tools used for restraining and
controlling dangerous or unreasonable people. Police officers routinely use handcuffs in their
work.
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for
the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of
Langerhans.
Kerosene
Kerosene is an oil distillate commonly used as a fuel or solvent. It is a thin, clear liquid
consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons that boil between 302°F and 527°F (150°C and 275°C).
Laser Pointer
The laser pointer is a low cost portable laser that can be carried in the hand. It is designed for use
during presentations to point out areas of the slide or picture being presented, replacing a hand
held wooden stick or extendable metal pointer.
Lawn Sprinkler
The lawn sprinkler is a mechanism through which water is distributed in a spray so that a
residential lawn or garden is irrigated. Sprinklers may take extraordinarily large forms, such as
the irrigation systems used by professional farmers to water crops in the field.
Lighter
The discovery of tobacco in the New World in the sixteenth century and the opening of a
worldwide market created the need for a portable way to make fire. Pieces of flint and steel
struck against each other and modified pistols were early devices.
Maracas
One of the most recognizable of the percussion instruments is the maracas, a pair of rattles made
from gourds. Maracas are essential to Latin and South American orchestras and bands, and other
musical forms that have adopted the rhythm of the maracas.
Microphone
A microphone is a device that converts mechanical energy waves or sound into electrical energy
waves. Speaking into a microphone excites (moves) a diaphragm that is coupled to a device that
creates an electrical current proportional to the sound waves produced.
Movie Projector
The inspiration for the development of motion pictures and projectors can be traced to a variety
of sources including theaters, circuses, and magic shows. Another important factor was the
understanding of the phenomenon of persistence of vision.
Night Scope
Night scopes, or night vision devices, are used to intensify human sight under very low light
conditions. There are several types of night vision scopes.
Oxygen Tank
Oxygen (atomic number, 8; atomic weight, 16) is essential for all living things and has the ability
to combine with almost all other elements. When elements fuse with oxygen, they are labeled as
being oxidized.
Pizza
A pizza is a round, open pie made with yeast dough and topped with tomato sauce, cheese, and a
variety of other ingredients.
Pyrex
Pyrex glass is a borosilicate glass first produced by The Corning Glass Works company. It is
made by heating raw materials like silica sand and boric oxide to extremely high temperatures
for extended periods of time.
Radio
The radio receives electromagnetic waves from the air that are sent by a radio transmitter.
Electromagnetic waves are a combination of electrical and magnetic fields that overlap.
Revolving Door
A revolving door is used to control traffic or heating and air conditioning in a building. The
revolving door structure consists of individual door panels (or wings), a center shaft with the
hardware needed to support the door wings, a circular structure called a "rotunda" or "drum" that
is usually fitted with glass, and the ceiling (supported by the rotunda) that contains either a
mechanical braking device (used to control the speed of the doors) or an electronic device that
uses a motor to drive the doors automatically.
Rubik's Cube
Rubik's cube is a toy puzzle designed by Erno Rubik during the mid-1970s. It is a cube-shaped
device made up of smaller cube pieces with six faces having differing colors.
Scale
The traditional bathroom scale is used to measure a person's body weight. It is based on a spring
system that uses the weight of the person to depress a lever, which in turn rotates a sprocket
attached to the dial.
Shrapnel Shell
There has always been a high demand among military strategists for economical means of killing
enemy soldiers. Economy is required not so much to save money, but to allow outnumbered
soldiers the opportunity to win battles.
Sleeping Pill
A sleeping pill, also commonly called a sleep aid, is a drug that helps a person fall asleep or
remain sleeping. Disorders such as insomnia (inability to sleep) are widespread, and drugs to
induce sleep have been used since ancient times.
Speedometer
A speedometer is a device used to measure the traveling speed of a vehicle, usually for the
purpose of maintaining a sensible pace. Its development and eventual status as a standard feature
in automobiles led to the enforcement of legal speed limits, a notion that had been in practice
since the inception of horseless carriages but had gone largely ignored by the general public.
Spinning Wheel
A spinning wheel is a machine used to turn fiber into thread or yarn. This thread or yarn is then
woven as cloth on a loom.
Spray Paint
Spray paint is an aerosol product designed to be dispensed as a fine mist. Compared to
conventional brush methods of painting, spray painting is faster and provides a more uniform
application.
Stereo Speaker
A loudspeaker or speaker is a device that converts electrical energy waves into mechanical
energy waves or audible sounds. Sound is produced by the vibration of an object.
Stirling Cycle Engine
An engine is a machine that converts energy into useful work: burning coal to turn the drive shaft
of a power plant generator, for example. The most common engine in production today is the
gasoline-powered automobile engine.
Sushi Roll
A sushi roll is a food of Asian origin that features rice and seafood wrapped in seaweed (nori).
Until the end of the twentieth century, sushi rolls were only available in restaurants.
Suture
A surgical suture is used to close the edges of a wound or incision and to repair damaged tissue.
There are many kinds of sutures, with different properties suitable for various uses.
Tattoo
A tattoo is a design that is permanently etched in the skin using needles and ink. The word tattoo
is derived from the Tahitian term "tatua," which means "to mark." Tattoos have been displayed
by people of all cultures for centuries, but they have only recently gained social acceptance in the
United States.
Teflon
Teflon is the registered trade name of the highly useful plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE). PTFE is one of a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers.
Tiara
Tiaras are marks of distinction and style worn by women of royalty and for special events such
as pageants, proms, and weddings. Revivals of interest in romantic ensembles, like those seen in
movies and in period costumes, make tiaras fascinating headdresses.
Titanium
Titanium is known as a transition metal on the periodic table of elements denoted by the symbol
Ti. It is a lightweight, silver-gray material with an atomic number of 22 and an atomic weight of
47.90.
Toaster
A toaster is a small appliance that uses heat to brown and harden bread.
Tuxedo
The tuxedo is a man's tailored suit used for semi-formal or formal wear. It may be sewn from a
wide variety of colors and fabrics; increasingly, brighter colors and unconventional designs are
pervasive in tuxedo styling.
Typewriter
Typewriters fall into five classifications. The standard typewriter was the first kind
manufactured.
Unicycle
A unicycle is a single-wheeled vehicle traditionally used during circus performances. It consists
of a spoke wheel, pedals, and a tube shaped body attached to a seat.
Vending Machine
From humble single-cent beginnings, vending operations in the United States have evolved into a
$36.6 billion industry. Canned cold drinks were the industry's top sellers in 1999, posting $15.7
billion in sales and accounting for 42.9% of the industry's gross sales volume.
Vinegar
Vinegar is an alcoholic liquid that has been allowed to sour. It is primarily used to flavor and
preserve foods and as an ingredient in salad dressings and marinades.
Windmill
A windmill is a structure or machine that converts wind into usable energy through the rotation
of a wheel made up of adjustable blades. Traditionally, the energy generated by a windmill has
been used to grind grain into flour.

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