كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 6
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 6

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 6   الجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 2:17 pm

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How Things Are Made Volume 6
كيف تصنع الأشياء - الجزء السادس

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Air Freshener
An air freshener is a product designed to mask or remove unpleasant room odors. These products
typically deliver fragrance and other odor counteractants into the air.
Angioplasty Balloon
An angioplasty balloon is a medical device that is inserted into a clogged artery and inflated to
clear blockage and allow blood to flow. The full medical name for the angioplasty procedure is
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
Artificial Heart
A natural heart has two pumps, each with two chambers. The right atrium pumps oxygendepleted
blood from the body into the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs.
Artificial Heart Valve
A heart valve acts as a check valve, opening and closing to control blood flow. This cycle occurs
about 40 million times per year or two billion in an average lifetime.
Bagpipes
The bagpipe is a wind instrument with a number of pipes and a bag. The melody pipe, or chanter,
has finger holes that are played to produce the tune.
Baking Powder
Baking powder is a solid mixture that is used as a chemical leavening agent in baked goods. It
can be composed of a number of materials, but usually contains baking soda (sodium
bicarbonate, NaHCO3), cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate, C4H5KO6), and cornstarch.
Basketball
Basketball can make a true claim to being the only major sport that is an American invention.
From high school to the professional level, basketball attracts a large following for live games as
well as television coverage of events like the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
annual tournament and the National Basketball Association (NBA) and Women's National
Basketball Association (WNBA) playoffs.
Boomerang
A boomerang is an aerodynamically shaped object designed to fly efficiently through the air
when thrown by hand. The term usually refers to an object made to follow a circular flight path
that returns it to the thrower.
Brass
Brass is a metal composed primarily of copper and zinc. Copper is the main component, and
brass is usually classified as a copper alloy.
Canal and Lock
A canal is a man-made waterway. Canals are built for a variety of uses including irrigation, land
drainage, urban water supply, hydroelectric power generation, and transportation of cargo and
people.
Caramel
Caramel is often eaten as little brown, sweet, buttery nuggets wrapped in cello-phane, but it is
also delicious in candy bars and on top of fresh popcorn. The best caramels are sweet and just a
bit chewy.
Cherries
Cherries may be either deliciously sweet and deep brown-red, or quite tart and bright red. The
two most common are the sweet cherry, Prunus avium L., and the sour (often referred to by
growers as the pie or tart) cherry Prunus cerasus L..
Chess
Chess is a classic two person board game. It is played with specially designed pieces on a square
board made up of 64 alternating light and dark squares arranged in eight rows and columns.
Clothes Iron
A clothes iron is a household appliance used to press the wrinkles out of and creases into clothes.
When the iron is turned on, the consumer moves it over an item of clothing on an ironing board.
Cognac
Cognac, a type of brandy, is considered to be one of the finest, if not the finest, of the spirits. It is
made from white grapes grown in the Charante region of France, and is named after the town of
Cognac in the French region of Charante.
Coir
What is commonly called a coconut, as found in grocery stores, is actually only the single seed
of a fruit of the coconut palm tree (Cocos nucifera). Before being shipped to market, the seed is
stripped of an external leathery skin and a 2-3 in (5-8 cm) thick intermediate layer of fibrous
pulp.
Corkscrew
Uncorking a bottle of wine presents a challenge. There is no way to grip the cork, which is
completely recessed in the bottle's neck.
Cotton
Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. Its name refers to the creamcolored
fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll.
Dishwasher
Washing dishes is not the most rewarding task. Cooking can be creative, but cleaning up
afterward seems like a waste of time and leaves the person washing complaining about "dishpan
hands." The development of the dishwasher has helped relieve some of the monotony, as well as
the grease and grime.
DNA Synthesis
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis is a process by which copies of nucleic acid strands are
made. In nature, DNA synthesis takes place in cells by a mechanism known as DNA replication.
Draw Bridge
A bridge over a navigable waterway must allow boats and ships to cross its path, usually by
being tall enough to allow them to sail underneath it. Sometimes it is impractical to build a
bridge high enough; for example, it may rise too steeply or block the view of an important
landmark.
Duct Tape
Duct tape is a cloth tape coated with a poly-ethylene resin on one side and very sticky rubberbased
adhesive on the other. Unlike other tapes, the fabric backing gives duct tape strength yet
allows it to be easily torn.
Electric Blanket
An electric blanket is a bed covering with a built-in heating element so that a sleeper can
maintain a desired temperature even in a cold room. Many consumers prefer electric blankets
because their use can reduce home heating costs.
Electronic Ink
Electronic ink is a special type of ink that can display different colors when exposed to an
electric field. It is made through a two step process that involves creating two-toned charged
particles and encapsulating them in a transparent polymeric shell.
Faucet
A faucet is a device for delivering water from a plumbing system. It can consist of the following
components: spout, handle(s), lift rod, cartridge, aerator, mixing chamber, and water inlets.
Ferris Wheel
A ferris wheel is an amusement park ride consisting of a large vertical wheel with places for
people to sit or stand spaced evenly around the outer circumference. In operation, the ferris
wheel revolves about a horizontal axis, and the riders are alternately lifted and then lowered as
they are carried around the wheel in a circle.
Flashlight
A flashlight is a portable, battery-operated device used for illumination. A typical unit consists of
one or more dry cell batteries arranged in a line inside a battery compartment that forms the
handle of the light.
Geodesic Dome
A geodesic sphere is an arrangement of polygons that approximates a true sphere. A geodesic
dome is a portion of a geodesic sphere.
Gyroscope
The gyroscope is a familiar toy that is deceptively simple in appearance and introduces children
to several mechanical principles, although they may not realize it. Something like a complex top
made of precisely machined metal, the gyroscope is a spinning wheel that may be set within two
or more circular frames, each oriented along a different line or axis.
Halogen Lamp
A halogen lamp is a type of incandescent lamp. The conventional incandescent lamp contains a
tungsten filament sealed within a glass envelope that is either evacuated or filled with an inert
gas or a mixture of these gases (typically nitrogen, argon and krypton).
Harpsichord
The harpsichord is the distinguished, classical ancestor of the piano. Its shape, described as a
large wing shape, was developed hundreds of years before the similar shape of the grand piano.
Ice Cream Cone
Today, the ice cream cone is a standard in any ice cream store or stand. This tasty treat is known
as a way to cool down in the summer and makes an edible container for a cold snack.
Indigo
Indigo, or indigotin, is a dyestuff originally extracted from the varieties of the indigo and woad
plants. Indigo was known throughout the ancient world for its ability to color fabrics a deep blue.
Industrial Hemp
Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. that grows to a height anywhere
from 4-15 ft (1.2-4.5 m) and up to 0.75 in (2 cm) in diameter.
Kaleidoscope
The kaleidoscope makes magic with light and mirrors. It may be considered a child's toy (or a
toy for all ages), but it is also a simple optical device with technical applications for designers
and pattern-makers.
Litmus Paper
Litmus paper is the most recognized member of chemical indicators. Like most pH paper, litmus
changes color when exposed to an acidic or basic solution.
Matryoshka Doll
The matryoshka doll is a symbol of Russia and its culture. It is truly a doll—a child's plaything—
but it began its history just over 100 years ago as a highly collectible art form.
Mayonnaise
Mayonnaise is a cold, emulsification used as sauce or as a condiment. It is made by blending egg
yolks and oil, then flavored with varying combinations of vinegar, mustard, herbs and spices.
Mouthwash
Mouthwash is a liquid oral product designed to freshen breath. Certain varieties may also kill
bacteria and/or whiten teeth.
Natural Gas
Natural gas is a mixture of combustible gases formed underground by the decomposition of
organic materials in plant and animal. It is usually found in areas where oil is present, although
there are several large underground reservoirs of natural gas where there is little or no oil.
Needle-free Injection System
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients
without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays,
edible products, inhalers, and skin patches.
Patent Leather
Patent leather is leather that has been finished with chemicals that give it a shiny, reflective
surface. It is usually black, and has long been popular for dress and dancing shoes.
Pinball
Pinball is a popular coin-operated game frequently found in amusement arcades. Players shoot
small balls through complicated paths and into targets on a playing field under glass.
Polyurethane
Polyurethanes are linear polymers that have a molecular backbone containing carbamate groups
(-NHCO2). These groups, called urethane, are produced through a chemical reaction between a
diisocyanate and a polyol.
Pool Table
In pool (the common American term for pocket billiards), a ball is struck with the end of a long,
slender stick (cue), causing it to roll into other balls and knock them into holes (pockets) around
the edges of the playing table. A short wall (rail) around the perimeter of the table keeps the balls
on the playing surface.
Raincoat
Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that is specially treated to repel water. In 1836, Charles
Macintosh invented a method for combining rubber with fabric, which was used in the first
modern raincoats.
Roller Coaster
A roller coaster is an amusement park ride where passengers sit in a series of wheeled cars that
are linked together. The cars move along a pair of rails supported by a wood or steel structure.
Rubber Cement
Rubber cement is a solution of unvulcanized (gum) rubber in a solvent, and is used as an
adhesive. Ideally, it is meant to join two pieces of rubber together, which involves a chemical
cohesion process.
Sailboat
For people who like to be near the water, sailboats provide a means of skimming over its surface.
Even when the water is frozen, iceboats (sailboats with runners or blades on the hull) can glide
across the ice.
Salad Dressing
Salad dressing is a type of sauce used to bind and flavor greens and/or vegetables.
Saxophone
A saxophone is a single reed, woodwind instrument first developed in the mid-1800s by Adolphe
Sax. It is composed of a mouthpiece, conical metal tube, and finger keys.
Seedless Fruits and Vegetables
The fruits that are grown, sold, and eaten are essentially the ripened ovary of a plant. In the wild,
fruit-bearing plants spread their seeds either by dropping their ripe fruits to the ground or by
being eaten by animals, who then excrete the seeds.
Semiconductor Laser
A laser, which is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, is a
device that converts energy into light. Electrical or optical energy is used to excite atoms or
molecules, which then emit light.
Shoelace
It is understand how important shoes are for protecting feet from hazards and weather, and
proper fit is necessary to maximize protection and comfort for the shoe's wearer. The shoelace is
one way to ensure the proper fit, and a simple pair of laces, costing less than two dollars, can
make all the difference in the world to the look and fit of a shoe.
Silicon
Second only to oxygen, silicon is the most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is found in rocks,
sand, clays and soils, combined with either oxygen as silicon dioxide, or with oxygen and other
elements as silicates.
Skateboard
A skateboard is a small piece of wood in the shape of a surfboard with four wheels attached to it.
A single person rides the skateboard, guiding the movement with his feet.
Skyscraper
There is no precise definition of how many stories or what height makes a building a skyscraper.
"I don't think it is how many floors you have.
Slime
Slime is a unique play material composed of a cross-linked polymer. It is classified as a liquid
and is typically made by combining polyvinyl alcohol solutions with borate ions in a large
mixing container.
Sodium Chlorite
Sodium chlorite is a compound used for water disinfection and purification. It is produced in
large quantities as flakes or a solution from chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide.
Solid State Laser
A laser, which is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, is a
device that converts electrical or optical energy into light. Electrical or optical energy is used to
excite atoms or molecules, which then emit monochromatic (single wavelength) light.
Springs
A spring is a device that changes its shape in response to an external force, returning to its
original shape when the force is removed. The energy expended in deforming the spring is stored
in it and can be recovered when the spring returns to its original shape.
Steel Wool
Steel wool is the name given to fine metal wire that are bundled together to form a cluster of
abrasive, sharp-edged metal strips. The metal strips are massed together in a sheet, folded, and
turned into pads that are easily held in the hand.
Teeth Whitener
Teeth whiteners are products designed to enhance the appearance of teeth by removing stains and
improving brightness. These whiteners typically contain bleaching agents, such as hydrogen
peroxide or other peroxygen-type chemicals, that remove organic residue and oxidize stains so
they are less visible.
Thompson Submachine Gun
A machine gun is a weapon that fires a continuous stream of bullets as long as the trigger is held
down. Many inventors worked to come up with such a gun, and early models are the well-known
Gatling gun, used prominently in the American Civil War, and Hiram Maxim's fully automatic
weapon, patented in 1883.
Toilet Paper
Most of us can't imagine living without toilet paper. The average American uses over 100 single
rolls—about 21,000 sheets—each year.
Tunnel
A tunnel is an underground or underwater passage that is primarily horizontal. Relatively smalldiameter
ones carry utility lines or function as pipelines.
Ukulele
The ukulele is a string instrument that originated in Portugal in the second century B.C. With a
small, guitar-shaped body that is fitted with four strings, it is considered a member of the
chordophone family.
Vacuum Cleaner
The vacuum cleaner is the appliance that frightens the cat, is chased by the dog, and, perhaps,
gives a home the most immediate appearance of being clean. Imagining a home without a
vacuum cleaner is next to impossible; yet, like many time-and effort-saving devices, its
widespread use is less than a century old.
Vermiculite
The term vermiculite applies to a group of minerals characterized by their ability to expand into
long, worm-like strands when heated. This expansion process is called exfoliation.
Wood Stain
Wood pieces are often decorated to add color and appeal. Wood products are often imparted with
a wood-tone stain to enhance the natural grain or add depth or tone to the wood.
Wrapping Paper
There are many kinds of wrapping papers manufactured specifically for the types of products
they are intended to wrap. For example, wrapping paper is made for bread for sanitary and
aesthetic purposes.
Xylophone
The xylophone is a component of the percussion section of an orchestra and many instrumental
groups. Its unique sound, relative rarity, and appearance make it fascin

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