كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 5
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 كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 5

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 5   الجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 2:15 pm

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How Things Are Made Volume 5
كيف تصنع الأشياء - الجزء الخامس

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Aluminum
The metallic element aluminum is the third most plentiful element in the earth's crust,
comprising 8% of the planet's soil and rocks (oxygen and silicon make up 47% and 28%,
respectively). In nature, aluminum is found only in chemical compounds with other elements
such as sulphur, silicon, and oxygen.
Ambulance
An ambulance is a self-propelled vehicle specifically designed to transport critically sick or
injured people to a medical facility. Most ambulances are motor vehicles, although helicopters,
airplanes, and boats are also used.
Artificial Blood
Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood
serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting
oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body.
Bed Sheet
A bed sheet is a flat-woven textile that is used on a bed between the occupant of a bed and the
warm blanket above. It is generally a rectangle of broadloomed fabric, meaning it is made
without a center seam.
Bioceramics
Over the last several decades, bioceramics have helped improve the quality of life for millions of
people. These specially designed materials—polycrystalline aluminum oxide, hydroxyapatite (a
mineral of calcium phosphate that is also the major component of vertebrate bone), partially
stabilized zirconium oxide, bioactive glass or glass-ceramics, and polyethylene-hydroxyapatite
composites—have been successfully used for the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of
diseased or damaged parts of the body, especially bone.
Bisque Porcelain Figurine
Bisque porcelain is unglazed, white ceramic ware that is hard-fired, non-poreous, and
translucent. Today's bisque porcelain industry has arisen out of hundreds of years of
experimentation with clay products and untold sources of artistic inspiration.
Brassiere
Derived from the french word meaning upper arm, the brassiere is a mass-produced support
undergarment worn by women that consists of two fabric cups attached to two side panels, a
back panel, and shoulder straps (unless strapless) that fits snugly. They are sized according to a
universal grading system first introduced by Ida Rosenthal, the founder of Maidenform, in 1928.
Ceramic Filter
During many industrial processes, a filtering step may be required to remove impurities and
improve quality of the final product. Depending on the process, the filter may be subjected to
high temperatures and a corrosive environment.
Child Safety Seat
In the United States, more than 2,000 children under 14 years of age die each year in vehicle
crashes. Not only are vehicle crashes the leading killers of children, in 1997 they also injured
nearly 320,000 youngsters.
Computer Mouse
Designers in the computer industry seek not only to "build the better mousetrap" but to build the
best mouse. The computer mouse is an accessory to the personal computer that has become an
essential part of operation of the computer.
Concrete Dam
Concrete dams are built in four basic shapes. The concrete gravity dam has weight as its strength.
Cork
An incredibly versatile natural material, cork is harvested from living cork oak trees somewhat
like wool is gathered from sheep. The trees are unharmed by the process, and they continue
producing cork for an average of 150 years.
Cough Drop
A cough drop is medicinal tablet designed to deliver active ingredients which suppress or relieve
the cough reflex. They are made just like hard candies; ingredients are mixed together, they are
cooked, cooled, and packaged.
Cranberries
The cranberry is a slender, trailing native North American shrub (Vaccinium macro-carpon) that
grows in moist, sandy soil. The fruit berry is small, red, quite tart, and high in vitamin C.
Crane
A crane is a machine that is capable of raising and lowering heavy objects and moving them
horizontally. Cranes are distinguished from hoists, which can lift objects but that cannot move
them sideways.
Cubic Zirconia
A gem or gemstone can be defined as a jewel or semiprecious stone cut and polished for personal
adornment. Gemstones produced in the United States and other producing countries are of three
types; natural, synthetic, and simulant.
Doorknob
There are 114 million existing doorways in the United States, with about two million new ones
added every year. Doors equipped with suitable hardware are used to close off these openings
and protect the interior of the building from the environment.
Doughnut
The doughnut is a fried ring or globule of sweet dough that is either yeast leavened or chemically
leavened. The dough is mixed and shaped, dropped into hot oil and fried, and glazed.
Electric Automobile
Unlike the gas-powered automobile, the electric automobile did not easily develop into a viable
means of transportation. In the early twentieth century, the electric car was vigorously pursued
by researchers; however the easily mass-produced gasoline-powered automobile squelched
interest in the project.
Eyeglass Frame
American humorist Dorothy Parker (1893-1967) once wrote caustically that "Men seldom make
passes at girls who wear glasses." Her comment tells as much about the eyeglass fashions
available in her youth as about the customs of flirtation. Ms.
Fill Dam
Dams are among the oldest structures built by humans for collective use. A dam is a barrier that
is constructed across a river or stream so the water can be held back or impounded to supply
water for drinking or irrigation, to control flooding, and to generate power.
Fishing Fly
A fishing fly is a hook that has been dressed with pieces of feathers, fur, thread, and other
materials to resemble a literal fly or some other small insect or fish. Fishing flies are tied in over
5,000 patterns and sizes, and each has a specific name.
Fishing Lure
The way to a fish's stomach is through his eyeballs, and fishing lures are objects that resemble
any of the naturally occurring foods that fish might find attractive. The purpose of the lure is to
use movement, color, and vibration to grab the fish's attention and cause him to bite the hook.
Fishing Rod
A fishing rod is a device used in sport fishing that consists of a long pole with a line held in place
alongside it with the use of guides. Usually the line is kept in storage on a reel that the angler
spins to both take up and let out the line while casting.
Flute
A flute is a musical instrument that produces sound when a stream of air is directed against the
edge of a hole, causing the air within the body of the instrument to vibrate. Most flutes are
tubular, but some are globular or other shapes.
Foam Rubber
Foam rubber is found in a wide range of applications, from cushioning in automobile seats and
furniture to insulation in walls and appliances to soles and heels in footwear. Foams are made by
forming gas bubbles in a plastic mixture, with the use of a blowing agent.
Frisbee
Nearly 300 million frisbees have been sold since their introduction 40 years ago, for both
organized sports and recreational play. According to Mattel, 90% of Americans have played with
this flying toy at one time or another, translating to 15 million people enjoying the sport every
year.
Galoshes
The name for galoshes originated in the Middle Ages when many styles of boots from short to
long were popular. The word came from Gaulish shoes or gallicae, which had leather uppers and
soles carved of wood; when the Romans conquered the territory they called Gaul (France), they
borrowed the Gaulish boot style.
Gelatin
Gelatin is a protein substance derived from collagen, a natural protein present in the tendons,
ligaments, and tissues of mammals. It is produced by boiling the connective tissues, bones and
skins of animals, usually cows and pigs.
Glass Ornament
When Christmas trees were still a new custom, inventive methods of decorating trees with as
much light as possible were developed. Actual lights, from candles to electric bulbs, were used,
of course; but, to magnify the sparkle and fascinate the young, metallic tinsel and glass baubles
became accessories for the well-dressed Christmas tree.
Glue
It is estimated that about 40 lb (18.2 kg) per year of glue are used for every person in America,
and it is easy to see how and why when one looks at the extent of uses. Furniture, plumbing,
shoes, books, buildings, and automobiles all use glue in some part of their construction.
Green Tea
In 1992, global production of all tea was almost 2.5 million tons. The majority of tea production
occurs in the subtropical areas of Asia, including China, India, Sri Lanka, Japan, and Indonesia.
Hang Glider
A hang glider is an unpowered heavier-than-air flying device designed to carry a human
passenger who is suspended beneath its sail. Unlike other gliders that resemble unpowered
airplanes, hang gliders look like large kites.
High Heel
Shoe height has historically reflected nobility, authority, and wealth. France's King Louis XIV
(1638-1715) was only 5 ft 3 in (1.6 m) tall until he donned specially-made high-heeled shoes
with curved heels constructed of cork and covered with red-dyed leather, with the red color
symbolizing nobility.
Honey
Honey is a sweet syrupy substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers and used
by humans as a sweetener and a spread. Honey is comprised of 17-20% water, 76-80% glucose,
and fructose, pollen, wax, and mineral salts.
Hourglass
Before the invention of mechanical clocks, timepieces used the sun's motion or simple
measurement devices to track time. The sundial may be the best known ancient keeper of time,
and it is still manufactured as a popular garden accessory—but for its visual interest, not for
practical time measurement.
Incense Stick
When the Three Wise Men brought their most precious gifts to Bethlehem, two of them—
frankincense and myrrh were resins used to make incense. The third gift was gold, but it was the
least valuable of these substances at that time.
Jukebox
A jukebox is a coin-operated machine that plays music from a record or compact disc (CD) once
a selection is made. Originally called nickelodeons, the term jukebox did not appear until the late
1930s and its origins are in dispute.
Lock
Locks have been used to fasten doors against thieves since earliest times. The Old Testament
contains several references to locks, and the first archaeological evidence of locks are about
4,000 years old.
Lyocell
Lyocell is a manmade fiber derived from cellulose, better known in the United States under the
brand name Tencel. Though it is related to rayon, another cellulosic fabric, lyocell is created by a
solvent spinning technique, and the cellulose undergoes no significant chemical change.
Macadamia Nut
In the world of nuts and berries, macadamia nuts are almost as precious as gold. These delicious,
exotic nuts with their rich flavor and oil are considered delicacies and are served as dessert nuts.
Molasses
Molasses, from the Latin word melaceres, meaning honey-like, is a thick dark syrup that is a
byproduct of sugar refining. It results when sugar is crystallized out of sugar cane or sugar beet
juice.
Mustard
A piquant condiment made from the seeds of the mustard plant. When the seeds are crushed, two
elements, myronate and myrasin, are released, creating a fiery tasting essence.
Nuclear Submarine
A nuclear submarine is a ship powered by atomic energy that travels primarily under-water, but
also on the surface of the ocean. Previously, conventional submarines used diesel engines that
required air for moving on the surface of the water, and battery-powered electric motors for
moving beneath it.
Nutcracker
A nutcracker is a device used to break open the shells of hard, dry fruits, known commonly as
nuts, produced by certain species of trees. The edible material within the shell is known as the
kernel.
Oatmeal
Oatmeal is made from the ground or rolled seeds of oat grass (Avena sativa). It is cooked as
cereal or used as an ingredient in baking.
Olives
The olive tree boasts two prizes—the olive itself (called the table olive) and the precious oil
pressed from the fruit's flesh. In fact, a third prize is the tree which has a twisted trunk full of
character, grey-green leaves, and wood which can be used for carving and furniture-making.
Paintbrush
A paintbrush is a handheld tool used to apply paint or sealers to paintable surfaces. The brush
picks up paint with filament, includes a ferrule that is a metal band that holds the filament and
handle together and gives the brush strength, a spacer plug within the ferrule which helps the
filament sits tightly in the brush and creates a reservoir for paint, epoxy to lock the filament, and
a handle which provides comfort and good balance.
Parachute
A parachute is a device used to slow the movement of a person or object as it falls or moves
through the air. Used primarily for safe descent from high altitudes (e.g., a spacecraft reentering
the atmosphere, a person or object dropped from an airplane), parachutes can also be used in
horizontal configurations to slow objects like race cars that have finished their runs.
Pepper
Pepper is often described as the "king of spices," and it shares a place on most dinner tables with
salt. The word pepper originated from the Sanskrit word pippali, meaning berry.
Pipe Organ
A pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by blowing air through a series of
hollow tubes controlled by keyboards. Pipe organs are distinguished from reed organs, in which
air causes thin strips of metal to vibrate.
Pita Bread
Nearly every civilization makes some type of bread. Prehistoric people of 10,000 years ago
baked bread.
Popcorn
Before about 1912, less than 19,000 acres (7,700 hectares) of farmland were dedicated to
growing popcorn, but the electric popcorn machine and the microwave increased the demand for
"prairie gold." Today, annual consumption of popcorn in America exceeds 1 billion lb (0.45
billion kg) or 71 quarts (67 liters) per person per year. The states of Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, and
Ohio lead the field.
Safety Razor
A safety razor is a device used to remove hair from areas of the body where it is undesirable such
as the face for men and the legs and underarm regions for women. The modern blade razor
consists of a specially designed blade mounted in a metal or plastic shell that is attached to a
handle.
Silly Putty
In 1943, Silly Putty was accidentally invented by James Wright, an engineer in General Electric's
New Haven laboratory, which was under a government contract to create an inexpensive
substitute for synthetic rubber for the war effort. By combining boric acid with silicone oil, a
material resulted that would stretch and bounce farther than rubber, even at extreme
temperatures.
Soccer Ball
People have played games similar to modern soccer around the world since ancient times. The
oldest recorded soccer-like game is the Chinese game of tsu-chu, allegedly invented by the
emperor Huang-Ti in 1697 B.C.
Soy Milk
Soy milk is a high protein, iron-rich milky liquid produced from pressing ground, cooked
soybeans. Creamy white soy milk resembles cow's milk but in fact differs from its dairy
counterpart in a number of ways.
Spacesuit
A spacesuit is a pressurized garment worn by astronauts during space flights. It is designed to
protect them from the potentially damaging conditions experienced in space.
Sponge
There are many different varieties of sea sponges, and these come in widely varying shapes and
sizes. They can be very large, and grow in elaborate branched formations, or be round and small,
or grow flat or in a tube shape.
Statuary
Sculpture is three-dimensional art, and statuary is affordable sculpture for everyone. Statuary
encompasses the sublime to the ridiculous it is as familiar as red- and-green lawn gnomes and as
exotic the Winged Victory, an ancient Greek sculpture displayed in the Louvre Museum in Paris,
France.
Steel Pipe
Steel pipes are long, hollow tubes that are used for a variety of purposes. They are produced by
two distinct methods which result in either a welded or seamless pipe.
Suspension Bridge
In a suspension bridge, the traffic-carrying deck is supported by a series of wire ropes that hang
from massive cables draped between tall towers. The Brooklyn Bridge in New York City and the
Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco are two of the most famous suspension bridges.
Telephone
Throughout history, people have devised methods for communicating over long distances. The
earliest methods involved crude systems such as drum beating or smoke signaling.
Thread
Thread is a tightly twisted strand of two or more plys of yarn that are circular when cut in cross
section. It is used for hand sewing and in home sewing machines.
Toilet
A system for dealing with excrement is necessary in every human community, and the need
becomes more pressing the more densely populated the area. Though simple pit latrines are still
common in many rural areas today, more complex lavatory designs date back thousands of years.
Tuba
A tuba is a brass instrument characterized by its large size and deep sound. It consists of
vertically coiled tubing, three or four valves, a wide conical bore, flared bell, and a cup-shaped
mouthpiece.
Video Game
Video games are played at the arcade, at home on a television or personal computer, and as a
handheld portable game. They are packaged in large consoles, game paks that can only be played
on the same manufacturer's hardware (i.e.
Vodka
Vodka is an alcoholic beverage distilled at a high proof from a fermented vegetable or grain
mash. Proof is a measurement of the alcohol content.
Wind Chime
The wind chime is a musical instrument that harnesses the wind as its player and composer.

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كتاب How Things Are Made Volume 5

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