كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide
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 كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide

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عدد المساهمات : 14270
التقييم : 22957
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide   الأربعاء 02 يناير 2013, 9:21 pm

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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Introduction
Digital Technology
Smaller Is Better
Medical Marvels
Improving Shuttle Safety
Airport Security
Process Control
Instrument Synchronization with PXI
PCI vs PXI
MileHigh Elevator
Proliferation of Information
Acoustic Emissions
Principles and Theory
Signal Propagation
Physical Considerations
The AE Process Chain
Time Considerations
AE Parameters
The AE Measurement Chain
Coupling Agents
AE Sensors
vii
Sensor Attachment
Sensor to Preamplifier Cable
AE Preamplifier
Preamplifier to System Cable
Vallen AMSY HighSpeed AE System
Frequency Filter
The A/D Converter
Feature Extraction
Transient Recorder
Data Buffer
Personal Computer and Software
Sensor Coupling Test (Autocalibration)
Location Calculation and Clustering
Location Calculation Based on Time Differences
Clustering
Sample Analysis Screen
Visualization of Measurement Results
Advantages and Limitations of AE Testing
Advantages
Advantages of Using Operating Medium (Gas or
Liquid)
Advantages Compared to Other NDT Methods
Limitations
Location Errors
AMSY Main Features
AE Transducers
Kistler Piezotron® Acoustic Emission Sensors and Couplers
AE Sensor Construction
Summary of AE Sensor Features
Technical Specifications—B Sensor
AE Coupler Features
Technical Specifications—B Coupler
Input
Output
Acoustic Emission Technology
AE Applications
AE Theory
Applications
Behavior of Materials—Metals Ceramics Composites
Rocks Concrete
Nondestructive Testing During Manufacturing
Processes
Monitoring Structures
Special Applications
viii CONTENTS
CONTENTS ix
Advanced Equipment
PCI AE Unit
Key Features
PCI Bit Channel AE Unit
MicroSAMOSTM Budget Compact AE System
DiSP Systems
PCI/DSP Card
Features of PCI/DSP System Board
PCI/DSP Board Operation and Functions
DiSP System Block Diagram
Other Company Products
Codes Standards Practices Guidelines and Societies
Sheer Numbers
Terminology
Common Term Definitions
General Principles
Measurement Techniques and Calibration
Areas of Opportunity
Application and ProductSpecific Procedures
ImpactEcho Method
Background
Finite Element Code
Ball Bearing–Generated Stress
ImpactEcho Transducer Development
Frequency Domain Analysis
Theory of Operations
Propagation of Waves
ImpactEcho Instrumentation
System Components
HeavyDuty Carrying Case
Computer Recommendations
Technical Specifications
HandHeld Transducer Unit
A/D Data Acquisition System
WindowsBased Software
Applications
Electromagnetic Testing Method
Eddy Current Theory
Surface Mounted Coils
Encircling Coils
Magnetic Flux Leakage Theory
Eddy Current Sensing Probes
Flux Leakage Sensing Probes
Induction Coils
Hall Effect Sensors
Factors Affecting Flux Leakage
SignaltoNoise Ratio
Test Frequency
Magnetization for Flux Leakage Testing
Coupling
Eddy Current Techniques
Instrument Design Considerations
UniWest US EddyViewTM
ELab Model US
ETC Scanner
Institut Dr Foerster
Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing
Applications
General Eddy Current Applications
Specific Eddy Current Applications
General Flux Leakage Applications
Specific Leakage Flux Applications
Use of Computers
Barkhausen Noise/Micromagnetic Testing
Introduction
Early Applications
Principles of Measurement
Equipment
Technical Specifications
Calibration and Testing
Current Applications
Applications in Aircraft/Automotive/Marine
Industries
General Applications
Pipe/Tubing/Sheet/Plate Manufacturing
Electromechanical Acoustic Transducers (EMATs)
EMATs Advantages Over Piezoelectric
Transducers
Basic Theory of Operation
Recent Applications and Developments
Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM)
Method
ACFM Principles of Operation
Bx and Bz Components
Butterfly Plot
Probe Design
Applications
x CONTENTS
Laser Testing Methods
Introduction
Disadvantages
Main Advantages
Laser Theory
Laser Safety
Laser Classification
Training
Profilometry Methods
Stylus Profilometry
Optical Profilometry
White Light Interferometry
Basic TV Holography/ESPI Interferometry
Single Laser Operation
Camera Operation
Applications
Thermal Stresses
Quantitative Aspects of Mechanical Stress
Qualitative Aspects
Nanometric Profiling Measurements
Introduction
Autofocus Principle
Specifications
Sensor
Camera
Conoscopic Holography
Theory
Specifications
Confocal Measurement
Specifications
Sensor
Camera
NanoSurf Confocal Microscopy
Introduction
Standard Components
Options
D Confocal Microscopy
Principle of Operation
Advantages
Specifications
Nanometric Profiling Applications
Scanning Laser Profilometry
Optical Principle
Probes
CONTENTS xi
D Profiler
LPTM Control Unit
LaserScanned Penetrant Inspection (LSPITMPatent Pending)
Applications
Advanced Techniques
Natural and External Excitation
Strain/Stress Measurement
Theory of Operation
Technical Data
Longer Range D Speckle Interferometry System
Technical Data
Hardware and Software Options
Applications for DESPI Systems
Technical Data
Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
Shearography
Principle of Laser Shearography
Compact Shearography System
Technical Data
Portable Shearography System
Technical Data
Other Applications
Feltmetal Inspection System
Setup and Technique
Technical Data
Optional Applications
Optical Inspection Systems
ARAMIS
IndustrySpecific Applications
Measuring Procedure
Measurement Results
Measurement Advantages
Comparison of ESPI and D Image Correlation
ARAMIS HR Specifications
ARGUS
TRITOP
Photogrammetric Offline System
Measurable Object Size
Digital Photogrammetry Functionality
System Advantages
Portable Measuring System Technique
Dynamic TRITOP
Other Laser Methods
Measurement of Hot Spots in Metal/Semiconductor
FieldEffect Transistors
xii CONTENTS
Leak Testing Methods
Introduction
Fundamentals
Ultrasonic Leak Testing
Ultrasonic Leak Detectors
Bubble Leak Testing
Dye Penetrant Leak Testing
Pressure Change Leak Testing
Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing
Mass Spectrometer Leak Detector
MSLD Subsystems
Spectrometer Tube
Vacuum Systems
Vacuum System Configurations
Conventional (Direct) Flow
Contraflow (Reverse) Flow
Midstage Flow
Multiple Flow
Electronics
I/O Functions
Methods of Leak Detection
Vacuum Testing Method (OutsideIn)
Locating Leaks
Measuring Leaks
Pressure Test Method (InsideOut)
Locating Leaks
Measuring Leaks
Accumulation Testing Method
Vacuum Systems
Pressurized Systems
MSLD Configurations
“Wet” or “Dry” Pumps
Cabinet or Workstation Models
Portable Units
Component or Integratable Units
Calibration
Calibrated Leaks
Radioisotope Tracer Leak Testing
Bubble Leak Testing
Leak Detector Solution
Vacuum Box Bubble Tracer Leak Testing
Pressure Bubble Leak Testing
Indications
Pressure Change Leak Testing
CONTENTS xiii
Principles
Terminology
Equipment
Pressurizing Gases
Pressure Change Measurement Testing
Reference System Technique
Leakage Rate and Flow Measurement Testing
Nuclear Reactor Systems
Halogen Diode Leak Testing
Principles
Terminology
Gases and Equipment
Calibration
“Sniffer” Techniques
Equipment Operation and Servicing
Normal Operation
VIC MSLD Leak Detectors
MSLD Subsystems
Spectrometer Tube
Vacuum System
Operating Sequence (MS and MS Dry)
Calibration Sequence (MS and MS Dry)
Liquid Penetrant Tests
Introduction
Processing
Test Methods
Water Washable Fluorescent Penetrant Process
PostEmulsification Fluorescent Process
Reverse Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Process
Visible Dye Penetrant Process
Water Emulsifiable Visible Dye Penetrant
Process
Water Washable Visible Dye Penetrant Process
PostEmulsifiable Visible Dye Penetrant Process
Solvent Clean Visible Dye Penetrant Process
Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Methods
Test Equipment
Penetrant Materials
System Comparisons
Applications
Measurement of UV and Visible Light
Automatic and Semiautomatic Penetrant Testing
Methods
xiv CONTENTS
Magnetic Particle Testing
Magnetic Principles
Magnets and Magnetic Fields
Discontinuities and Defects
Induced Magnetic Fields
Circular and Longitudinal Fields
Selection of Magnetizing Method
Commercial Equipment
Wet and Dry Particle Inspection
MT Improvements
Remote Magnetic Particle Inspection
Probe Power
Lightweight UV Lamps
Dual Light (UV/Visible and Visible) Particle
Indications
Applications
Residual Fields and Demagnetization
Magnetic Flux Strips
Hall Effect Gaussmeter
The Hysteresis Curve
Selection of Equipment
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Method
Magnetic Rubber Inspection
Introduction
Inspection Principles
Advantages of MRI
Formulations
Underwater MRI
Technique
Disadvantages
Magnetic Penetrameters
Automatic and Semiautomatic Inspection
Magwerks Integrated System Tracking Technology
Basic Operation
Basic Operation—Automatic Mode
Applications
Discontinuities and Their Appearances
Nonrelevant Indications
Neutron Radiographic Testing
Introduction
Physical Principles
Neutron Radiation Sources
CONTENTS xv
Neutron Activation Analysis
Ward Center TRIGA Reactor
Radiation Hazards and Personal Protection
Radiation Detection Imaging
Conversion Screens
Indirect Transfer Method
Direct Transfer Method
Fluorescent Screens
Electronic Imaging
Nonimaging Detectors
Neutron Radiographic Process
Interpretation of Results
Other Neutron Source Applications
Neutron Level Gauges
Californium Sources
Neutron Radioscopic Systems
Introduction
Neutron Imaging System Components
Online Inspection Systems
Characteristics of Aluminum Corrosion
Thermal Neutron Inspection System Requirements
Conclusions
Radiographic Testing Method
Industrial Radiography
Personnel Monitoring
Selected Definitions
Survey Instruments
Leak Testing of Sealed Sources
Survey Reports
Work Practices
Time—Distance—Shielding—Containment
Regulatory Requirements
Exposure Devices
State and Federal Regulations
Basic Radiographic Physics
Introduction—Isotope Production
Fundamental Properties of Matter
Radioactive Materials
Stability and Decay
Activity
HalfLife
Types of Radiation
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
xvi CONTENTS
Biological Effects
Radiation Detection
Survey Instruments
Radiation Sources
Isotope Sources
Portable Linear Accelerators
Special Radiographic Techniques
Standard Radiographic Techniques
Introduction
Basic Principles
Screens
Film Composition
The Radiograph
Image Quality
Film Handling Loading and Processing
HighIntensity Illuminators
Fluoroscopy Techniques
Flat Panel Digital Imaging Systems
Flat Panel Systems vs Fuji Dynamix CR Imaging System
Resolution
Ghost Images
Image Lag
Dark Current Noise
Portability
Temperature Sensitivity
Flexibility
Fragility
Advantages
Industrial Computed Tomography
Scan Procedure
Applications of Industrial Computed Tomography
CT System Components
Automatic Defect Recognition
Imaging Improvements
LDA Design and Operation
ADR Techniques
Neural Network Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Rule Base Using Specific Algorithms
Operating Sequence
ADR Advances of a PC Platform Over Proprietary
Hardware
ADR Techniques
SADR
Conclusions
The Digitome® Process
CONTENTS xvii
Examination Concept
Digital Flat Panel Detector
Image Acquisition
Flaw Location and Measurement
Other Applications
Manufacturing Processes and Discontinuities
Other Isotope Applications
Electron Capture Detection
Moisture Gauging
Bone Density
Gamma and Beta Thickness Gauging
Gamma and Beta Backscatter Thickness Gauging
Gamma Level Gauging
Gamma Density Measurement
Point Level Switch
Features and Benefits
Oil Well Logging
Thermal/Infrared Testing Method
Basic Modes of Heat Transfer
The Nature of Heat Flow
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Exothermic Reactions
Endothermic Reactions
Temperature Measurement
Common Temperature Measurements
Melting Point Indicators
Color Change Thermometry
Irreversible Color Change Indicators
Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Indicators
Liquid in Glass Thermometers
Temperature Sensors with External Readouts
Thermocouple Sensors
Special Thermocouple Products
Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs)
RTD Sensing Elements and Typical
Temperature Ranges
Resistance Temperature Elements (RTEs)
Infrared Imaging Energy
Heat and Light Concepts
Pyrometers
Error Correction
Principles of Operation
NarrowBand Optical Pyrometers
BroadBand Optical Pyrometers
xviii CONTENTS
Design and Operations of Optical Pyrometers
Applications for BroadBand Optical Pyrometers
Installation of Optical Pyrometers
Infrared Imaging Systems
Blackbody Calibration Sources
Spacial Resolution Concepts
FOV IFOV MIFOV and GIFOV
Angular Resolving Power
Error Potential in Radiant Measurements
Infrared Testing Method
Preventive and Predictive Maintenance Programs
Electrical PdM Applications
Mechanical PdM Applications
HighPerformance Thermal Imager for Predictive
Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance Program
Specifications
Thermal
Controls
Optional Features
Other
HighPerformance Radiometric IR System
Introduction
Applications
Theory of Operation
Operating Technique
Typical Specifications
Mikron Instrument Company Inc
Mikron V Thermal Imager and Visible Light Camera
General Features
Technical Data
Performance
Presentation
Measurement
Interface
HighSpeed IR Line Cameras
General Information—MikroLine Series
HighSpeed Temperature Measurement of Tires
Camera Specifications
Other Thermal Testing Methods
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
DLATGS Pyroelectric Detectors
FTIR Evaluation of Hard Disk Fluororesin
Coating
Measurement of Film Thickness on a Silicon
Wafer
CONTENTS xix
Advanced Mercury Analyzer
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Software
Identification of Materials
Thermoelectric Alloy Sorting
Applications
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Ultrasonic Testing
Introduction
Definition of Acoustic Parameters of a
Transducer
Noncontacting Ultrasonic Testing
NCU Transducers
Instant Picture Analysis System
Limitations
Bioterrorism
Ultrasonic Pulsers/Receivers
Multilayer Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
Conventional Ultrasound
Flaw Detection
Frequency
Ultrasonic Wave Propagation
Acoustic Impedance
Reflection and Refraction
Diffraction Dispersion and Attenuation
Fresnel and Fraunhofer Fields
Generation of Ultrasonic Waves
Search Unit Construction
Test Methods
Ultrasonic Testing Equipment
Equipment Operation
Flaw Transducers
Instrument Features
Ultrasonic Specifications
Physical Description and Power
Supply
Testing Procedures
Variables Affecting Results
TimeofFlight Diffraction (TOFD)
xx CONTENTS
Vibration Analysis Method
Introduction
Principles/Theory
Modes of Vibration
Resonance
Degrees of Freedom
Sources of Vibration
Noise Analysis
Stress Analysis
Modal Analysis
Vibration Analysis/Troubleshooting
Rotating Equipment Analysis
Order Analysis
Transfer Functions
Predictive Maintenance
Failure Analysis
Impact Testing and Frequency Response
Pass and Fail Testing
Correction Methods
Alignment and Balance
Beat Frequency
Vibration Damping
Dynamic Absorber/Increasing Mass
Looseness/Nonlinear Mechanical Systems
Isolation Treatments
Speed Change
Stiffening
Machine Diagnosis
Sensors
Strain Gauges
Accelerometers
Velocity Sensors
Displacement Sensors
Rolling Element Bearing Failures
Bearing Vibration/Noise
Blowers and Fans
Vibrotest Version
Signal Conditioning
Acoustic Filters
Equipment Response to Environmental Factors
Temperature/Humidity
Data Presentation
AccelerationVelocity and Displacement
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)/Time Waveform
CONTENTS xxi
Cepstrum Analysis
Nyquist Frequency/Plot
Orbit Lissajous XY and Hysteresis Plots
Online Monitoring
Trend Analysis
Portable Noise and Vibration Analysis System
Typical Applications
System Requirements
Laser Methods
Theory of Operation
Applications
Specifications
TEC’s Aviation Products
Analyzer Plus Model
Flexible System
User Friendly
Expandability
Quality Commitment
Engine Fan Balancing Application
Technical Specifications
ProBalancer Analyzer
Software Features
Technical Specifications
Viper
Automated Track and Balancing
Vibration Analysis
Acoustic Analysis
Technical Specifications
Visual and Optical Testing
Fundamentals
Principles and Theory of Visual Testing
Selection of Correct Visual Technique
Equipment
Borescopes
Jet Engine Inspection
Nuclear Applications
Other Applications
Fiberscopes and Videoscopes
Applications
SnakeEyeTM Diagnostic Tool
Industrial Videoscopes
Equipment and Features
Instrument Setup
xxii CONTENTS
D Viewing
Applications
Working Tools
Projection Microscopes
Leica FS Forensic Comparison Microscope
The LongDistance Microscope
New Developments
Model K LongDistance Microscope
Numerical Aperture (NA)
Care and Cleaning
InfiniVar CFM Video Inspection
Microscope
AccordionTM Machine Vision
InFocus Microscope Enhancement System
Spherical Aberrations
InFocus Corrections
Applications
InfiniMaxTM LongDistance Microscope
Remote Visual Inspection
Industries—Applications
Camera Head Options
Camera Pan and Tilt Features
HandHeld Controller
Camera Control Unit
HandHeld Controller Details
Applications
Robotic Crawler Units
Control Unit
Cable Reels
Crawler and Camera Options
Applications
Pipe and Vessel Inspections/Metal Joining Processes
Ocean Optics Photometers
Optical Resolution
System Sensitivity
Specifications
Applications
Overview of Recommended Practice No SNTTCA
Edition
Purpose
Personnel Qualification and Certification in
Nondestructive Testing
NDT Levels of Qualification
CONTENTS xxiii
Recommended NDT Level III Education Training and
Experience
Written Practice
Charts
Recommended Training Courses
Acoustic Emissions Testing Method
Electromagnetic Testing Method
Laser Testing Methods—Holography/Shearography
Laser Testing Methods—Profilometry
Leak Testing Methods
Liquid Penetrant Testing Methods
Magnetic Particle Testing Method
Neutron Radiographic Testing Method
Radiographic Testing Method
Thermal/Infrared Testing Method
Ultrasonic Testing Method
Vibration Analysis Method
Visual Testing Method
Appendix
Example Questions
Answers to Example Questions
A Dynamic Document
Special Disclaimer
Appendix : Bibliography of Credits
Appendix : Company Contributors
Index

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عدد المساهمات : 3
التقييم : 3
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/09/2012
العمر : 30
الدولة : Iraq
العمل : student
الجامعة : Baghdad

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide   الثلاثاء 26 نوفمبر 2013, 6:16 pm

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كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing A Training Guide

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