كتاب Rockwell Hardness Measurement of Metallic Materials
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 كتاب Rockwell Hardness Measurement of Metallic Materials

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Rockwell Hardness Measurement of Metallic Materials   الخميس 13 ديسمبر 2012, 7:51 pm

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Rockwell Hardness Measurement of Metallic Materials

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

List of Figures ix
List of Tables xii
Introduction
Rockwell Hardness Test
Significance of the test
Rockwell indentation test principle
Rockwell hardness scales
Rockwell hardness number
Test method standards
Test Procedure
Choosing the appropriate Rockwell scale
Test surface preparation
Rockwell hardness testing machine
Hardness measurement
Reference Test Block Standards
Primary reference test blocks
Secondary reference test blocks
Use of reference test block standards
Verifications of Rockwell Hardness Machines
Direct verification
Indirect verification
Correcting measurement biases
Monitoring Test Machine Performance
Reproducibility
Daily verification
Reducing Measurement Differences and Errors
Reduce machine component operating errors
Verify machine measurement performance
Measurement locations
Traceability, Error, and Uncertainty
Traceability
Measurement error
Uncertainty
Status of Rockwell Hardness Standardization
in the Year
United States
International
Bibliography
Annex A: Applied Force Effect
Annex B: Rockwell Hardness Testing Cycle Effect
B Effect of force application rate
B Effect of dwell times
Annex C: Use of NIST Rockwell C Scale SRM Test Blocks
C Recommendations for use
C Calculation of certified values for arbitrary locations
Table of Contents
List of Figures
Figure : Plots of force vs time (a) and indenter-depth vs
time (b) for an HRC test illustrating the testing
cycle parts and the difference in indenter depth
measurements h
Figure : Force vs time plot (Figure A) and indenter-depth vs
time plot (Figure B) demonstrating the effect of an
increase in the preliminary-force for a Rockwell
HRA test
Figure : Force vs time plot (Figure A) and indenter-depth vs
time plot (Figure B) demonstrating the effect of an
increase in the total-force for a Rockwell HRA test
Figure : Diagram of cross-sectional view of spheroconical
diamond indenter tip
Figure : Eight steps of the Rockwell test cycle
Figure : Four examples of the hardness profile across the
test surface of HRC test blocks, illustrating how
the non-uniformity in hardness can vary within a
block and differs from block to block Each line
represents a hardness change of HRC
Light to dark areas represent hard to soft areas
Figure : Hardness profile across the test surface of a NIST
test block The NIST calibration measurements are
indicated by the solid circles, and the locations of
the certified values for untested locations are
indicated by the open circles
Figure : Alternate pattern for repeatability measurements
Figure : Illustration of the three bias points corrected by a
linear fit correction curve
Figure : Illustration of reproducibility data taken over ten days
Figure : NIST Rockwell hardness standardizing machine
Table of Contents 
Figure : General trend of the difference between NIST and
US industry Rockwell C scales The line represents
the approximate increase in the HRC scale as
determined by NIST (for hardness levels as indicated
on the bottom axis) with respect to the HRC scale
used by US industry prior to development of the
NIST scale
Figure : Results of international comparison of HRC
scale The heavy line indicates the NIST data
Figure A: Change in the Rockwell hardness value due to a
change in the preliminary force for diamond indenter
scales (Figure A) and selected ball scales (Figure B)
Figure A: Change in the Rockwell hardness value due to a
change in the total force for diamond indenter scales
(Figure A) and selected ball scales (Figure B)
Figure A: The possible offset in Rockwell hardness measurement
values that could be obtained for the diamond indenter
scales by varying the applied preliminary forces and
total forces within the ASTM tolerances (Figure A)
and the ISO tolerances (Figure B)
Figure B: Force and indenter depth oscillations that can
occur when the force application rate is too fast
Figure B: Change in apparent HRC hardness due to changes in
the additional force application rate (indenter velocity)
Figure B: Expanded view of the material creep and recovery
during the dwell times of a Rockwell hardness test
Figure B: Relationship between the preliminary force dwell
time and the HRC measurement value for steel
test blocks at three hardness levels
Figure B: Relationship between the total force dwell time and
the HRC measurement value for steel test blocks
at three hardness levels
Figure B: Relationship between the total force dwell time and the
HRB measurement value for brass test blocks at three
hardness levels
Table of Contents
Figure B Relationship between the recovery dwell time and the
HRC measurement value for steel test blocks at three
hardness levels
Figure C Test block surface illustrating the locations
(letters A through K) of certified hardness values
given in Table C
Figure C Test surface of the Rockwell hardness SRMs
indicating the location and sequence of certification
indentations
List of Tables
Table : Rockwell hardness scales with the corresponding
indenter type, applied forces and typical applications
Table : Ranges of Rockwell scales given in ISO standards
Table A: Specified test forces with tolerances
Table C: Hypothetical certified hardness values for the
average of six specific test block locations as
illustrated in Figure C
Table C: Hypothetical certified hardness values for specific
test block locations The x - y coordinate system is such
that location x = , y = is at the block center (NIST
indentation ), and oriented with the NIST logo at the
bottom of the block as illustrated in Figure C
Table C: Hypothetical semivariogram coefficients that
describe test block nonuniformity and repeatability
Table C: Hypothetical NIST hardness readings for specific test
block locations
Table C: Matrix Γ
Table C: Inverse matrix Γ- with elements gij
Table C: Sources of uncertainty for the certified average HRC
hardness value with hypothetical values to be used
in the examples
Table C: The coordinates for the locations used in the
calculations of Example

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