كتاب Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards
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 كتاب Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards

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عدد المساهمات : 2044
التقييم : 3386
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 39
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards   الأربعاء 31 أكتوبر 2012, 8:46 am

اخوانى واخوتى فى الله
معى اليوم كتاب Handbook of Comparative
World Steel Standards
ASTM DS67B
Third Edition
John E. Bringas, Editor

Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Comparing World Steel Standards ............................................................................ 1
Myth and Methodology When Comparing Steel Standards..................................................................... 1
Comparative and Closest Match.............................................................................................................. 2
Organization ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Definition and Steel Terms....................................................................................................................... 5
Cautionary Note ...................................................................................................................................... 7
Questions Regarding the Rules of Comparison....................................................................................... 8
Non-Comparable Steels ........................................................................................................................... 8
Criteria for Comparing Steels................................................................................................................... 8
List of Comparison Rules ....................................................................................................................... 10
Brief Introduction to Steel Standards and Designation Systems ........................................................... 12
ASTM Designation System.................................................................................................................... 12
ASTM Reference Standards and Supplementary Requirements .......................................................... 13
SAE Designation System and Discontinued AISI Designation System ................................................. 14
Carbon and Alloy Steels................................................................................................................. 14
UNS Designation System....................................................................................................................... 15
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) ................................................................................................ 16
Introduction to European Standard Steel Designation System.............................................................. 17
EN 10027 Standard Designation System for Steels .............................................................................. 18
Steel Names.................................................................................................................................. 18
Steel Numbers ............................................................................................................................... 18
Former National Standards Replaced by CEN Standards..................................................................... 19
2. Carbon and Alloy Steels for General Use.......................................................................................... 21
2.1 Chemical Composition of Carbon Steels for General Use............................................................. 23
2.2 Chemical Composition of High Manganese Carbon Steels for General Use ................................ 34
2.3 Chemical Composition of Alloy Steels for General Use................................................................. 35
2.3.1 Chromium (Cr) Steels ....................................................................................................... 35
2.3.2 Chromium-Molybdenum (Cr-Mo) Steels ........................................................................... 37
2.3.3 Chromium-Nickel (Cr-Ni) Steels........................................................................................ 38
2.3.4 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) Steels ........................................................... 39
2.3.5 Chromium-Molybdenum-Aluminum (Cr-Mo-Al) Steels ..................................................... 40
2.3.6 Boron (B) Steels................................................................................................................ 41
2.3.7 Chromium-Vanadium (Cr-V) Steels .................................................................................. 42
2.4 Non-Comparable Carbon and Alloy Steels for General Use ......................................................... 43
3. Structural Steel Plates ......................................................................................................................... 47
3.1 Carbon Steels for Structural Steel Plates ...................................................................................... 50
3.1A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steels for Structural Steel Plates ................................ 50
3.1B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steels for Structural Steel Plates ................................ 66
3.2 Alloy Steels for Structural Steel Plates .......................................................................................... 72
3.2.1A Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel Plates...................... 73
3.2.1B Chemical Composition of High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel Plates ..................... 75
3.2.2A Mechanical Properties of Alloy Steels for Structural Steel Plates .................................... 79
3.2.2B Chemical Composition of Alloy Steels for Structural Steel Plates .................................... 84
3.3 Structural Steels with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion-Resistance ............................................ 88
3.3A Mechanical Properties of Structural Steels with Improved Atmospheric
Corrosion-Resistance........................................................................................................ 88
3.3B Chemical Composition of Structural Steels with Improved Atmospheric
Corrosion-Resistance........................................................................................................ 94
x
Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards
3.4 Non-Comparable Carbon Steels for Structural Steel Plates.......................................................... 97
3.5 Non-Comparable Alloy Steels for Structural Steel Plates.............................................................. 98
4. Pressure Vessel Steel Plates .............................................................................................................. 99
4.1 Carbon Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates................................................................................... 103
4.1A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel Plates .................................... 103
4.1B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel Plates ................................... 109
4.2 Carbon Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates - With Impact Testing Below -20°C .......................... 113
4.2A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates -
With Impact Testing Below -20°C ................................................................................... 113
4.2B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates -
With Impact Testing Below -20°C ................................................................................... 115
4.3 ½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates.............................................................................. 117
4.3A Chemical Composition of ½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 117
4.3B Mechanical Properties of ½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates........................ 119
4.4 Cr-Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates............................................................................ 121
4.4.1A Chemical Composition of ¾Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ............... 121
4.4.1B Mechanical Properties of ¾Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel for Pressure Vessel Plates.................. 121
4.4.2A Chemical Composition of 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................ 122
4.4.2B Mechanical Properties of 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates................. 122
4.4.3A Chemical Composition of 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ............. 123
4.4.3B Mechanical Properties of 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates.............. 123
4.4.4A Chemical Composition of 2¼Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .............. 124
4.4.4B Mechanical Properties of 2¼Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates............... 125
4.4.5A Chemical Composition of 3Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................. 126
4.4.5B Mechanical Properties of 3Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates.................. 126
4.4.6A Chemical Composition of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................ 127
4.4.6B Mechanical Properties of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates................. 127
4.4.7A Chemical Composition of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................. 128
4.4.7B Mechanical Properties of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates.................. 128
4.5 Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .................................................................................. 129
4.5.1A Chemical Composition of ½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ......................... 129
4.5.1B Mechanical Properties of ½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ......................... 129
4.5.2A Chemical Composition of 1½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 130
4.5.2B Mechanical Properties of 1½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 130
4.5.3A Chemical Composition of 2¼Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 131
4.5.3B Mechanical Properties of 2¼Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 131
4.5.4A Chemical Composition of 3½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 132
4.5.4B Mechanical Properties of 3½Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ....................... 133
4.5.5A Chemical Composition of 5Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .......................... 134
4.5.5B Mechanical Properties of 5Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .......................... 134
4.5.6A Chemical Composition of 9Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .......................... 135
4.5.6B Mechanical Properties of 9Ni Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .......................... 136
4.6 Ni-Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ............................................................................ 137
4.6.1A Chemical Composition of ½Ni-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates................ 137
4.6.1B Mechanical Properties of ½Ni-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................ 138
4.6.2A Chemical Composition of ¾Ni-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates................ 139
4.6.2B Mechanical Properties of ¾Ni-½Mo Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................ 140
4.7 Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates .......................................... 141
4.7A Chemical Composition of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for
Pressure Vessel Plates................................................................................................... 141
4.7B Mechanical Properties of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for
Pressure Vessel Plates................................................................................................... 142

4.8 Austenitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ............................................................... 143
4.8A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates......... 143
4.8B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ......... 146
4.9 Duplex Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates.................................................................... 151
4.9A Chemical Composition of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steels for
Pressure Vessel Plates................................................................................................... 151
4.9B Mechanical Properties of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steels for
Pressure Vessel Plates................................................................................................... 152
4.10 Non-Comparable Carbon and Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ...................................... 153
4.11 Non-Comparable Stainless Steels for Pressure Vessel Plates ................................................... 156
5. Steel Tubes and Pipes ....................................................................................................................... 157
5.1 Carbon Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications...................................................... 165
5.1A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Tubes for General and
Structural Applications .................................................................................................... 165
5.1B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Tubes for General and
Structural Applications .................................................................................................... 176
5.2 Alloy Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications.......................................................... 185
5.2A Chemical Composition of Alloy Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications.... 185
5.2B Mechanical Properties of Alloy Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications .... 186
5.3 Stainless Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications ................................................... 188
5.3.1A Chemical Composition of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubes for
General and Structural Applications ............................................................................... 188
5.3.1B Mechanical Properties of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubes for
General and Structural Applications ............................................................................... 189
5.3.2A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes for
General and Structural Applications ............................................................................... 190
5.3.2B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes for
General and Structural Applications ............................................................................... 193
5.4 Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low-Temperature Service .................................................... 196
5.4A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes -
With Impact Testing Below -20°C ................................................................................... 196
5.4B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes -
With Impact Testing Below -20°C ................................................................................... 198
5.5 Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low-Temperature Service ........................................................ 199
5.5A Chemical Composition of Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low-Temperature Service.. 199
5.5B Mechanical Properties of Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low-Temperature Service .. 200
5.6 Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes ............................................................... 202
5.6A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes ......... 202
5.6B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes......... 204
5.7 Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures........................... 206
5.7A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 206
5.7B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 210
5.8 Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures............................... 213
5.8.1A Chemical Composition of ¼Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 213
5.8.1B Mechanical Properties of ¼Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 213
5.8.2A Chemical Composition of ½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 214
5.8.2B Mechanical Properties of ½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 215

5.8.3A Chemical Composition of ½Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 216
5.8.3B Mechanical Properties of ½Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 216
5.8.4A Chemical Composition of 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 217
5.8.4B Mechanical Properties of 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 218
5.8.5A Chemical Composition of 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 219
5.8.5B Mechanical Properties of 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 219
5.8.6A Chemical Composition of 2¼-1Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 220
5.8.6B Mechanical Properties of 2¼-1Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 220
5.8.7A Chemical Composition of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 221
5.8.7B Mechanical Properties of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 221
5.8.8A Chemical Composition of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 222
5.8.8B Mechanical Properties of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures ..................................................................... 222
5.9 Stainless Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes and High Temperatures ..................... 223
5.9.1A Chemical Composition of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel
Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes and High Temperatures ................................. 223
5.9.1B Mechanical Properties of of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel
Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes and High Temperatures ................................. 224
5.9.2A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes and High Temperatures .................................................................. 225
5.9.2B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes and Pipes for
Pressure Purposes and High Temperatures .................................................................. 234
5.10 Line Pipe Steels ........................................................................................................................... 246
5.10.1A Mechanical Properties of Line Pipe Steels Without Notch Toughness Requirements ... 246
5.10.1B Chemical Composition of Line Pipe Steels Without Notch Toughness Requirements... 247
5.10.2A Mechanical Properties of Line Pipe Steels With Notch Toughness Requirements ........ 250
5.10.2B Chemical Composition of Line Pipe Steels With Notch Toughness Requirements........ 253
5.11 Non-Comparable Carbon Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications ......................... 257
5.12 Non-Comparable Alloy Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications ............................. 258
5.13 Non-Comparable Stainless Steel Tubes for General and Structural Applications ...................... 259
5.14 Non-Comparable Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low Temperature Service........................ 259
5.15 Non-Comparable Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Low Temperature Service............................ 260
5.16 Non-Comparable Carbon Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes at
High Temperatures ...................................................................................................................... 260
5.17 Non-Comparable Alloy Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes at High Temperatures .. 261
5.18 Non-Comparable Stainless Steel Tubes and Pipes for Pressure Purposes and
High Temperatures ...................................................................................................................... 262
5.19 Non-Comparable Line Pipe Steels............................................................................................... 263
6. Steel Forgings .................................................................................................................................... 265
6.1 Carbon Steel Forgings ................................................................................................................. 268
6.1.1A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Forgings for General Use................................. 268
6.1.2A Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping, Pressure Vessel
and Components............................................................................................................. 272
6.1.2B Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping, Pressure Vessel
and Components............................................................................................................. 275
6.2 Alloy Steel Forgings ..................................................................................................................... 277
6.2.1A Chemical Composition of 1¼Cr-¼Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for General Use ................. 277
6.2.1B Mechanical Properties of 1¼Cr-¼Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for General Use.................. 278
6.2.2 Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping, Pressure Vessel and Components............................... 279
6.2.2.1A Chemical Composition of Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 279
6.2.2.1B Mechanical Properties of Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 279
6.2.2.2A Chemical Composition of ½Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 280
6.2.2.2B Mechanical Properties of ½Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 280
6.2.2.3A Chemical Composition of 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 281
6.2.2.3B Mechanical Properties 1Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 281
6.2.2.4A Chemical Composition of 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 282
6.2.2.4B Mechanical Properties 1¼Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 282
6.2.2.5A Chemical Composition of 2¼Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 283
6.2.2.5B Mechanical Properties of 2¼Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 284
6.2.2.6A Chemical Composition of 3Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 285
6.2.2.6B Mechanical Properties of 3Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 285
6.2.2.7A Chemical Composition of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 286
6.2.2.7B Mechanical Properties of 5Cr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 286
6.2.2.8A Chemical Composition of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 287
6.2.2.8B Mechanical Properties of 9Cr-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 287
6.2.2.9A Chemical Composition of 11Cr-½Ni-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 288
6.2.2.9B Mechanical Properties of 11Cr-½Ni-1Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components................................................................... 288
6.2.2.10A Chemical Composition of Ni Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 289
6.2.2.10B Mechanical Properties of Ni Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 290
6.2.2.11A Chemical Composition of Ni-Mn Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 291
6.2.2.11B Mechanical Properties of Ni-Mn Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 291
6.2.2.12A Chemical Composition of C\vNi-½Cr-Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 292
6.2.2.12B Mechanical Properties of C\vNi-½Cr-Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 292
6.2.2.13A Chemical Composition of C\vNi-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 293
6.2.2.13B Mechanical Properties of C\vNi-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 293
6.2.2.14A Chemical Composition 3¼Ni-1C\vCr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 294
6.2.2.14B Mechanical Properties 3¼Ni-1C\vCr-½Mo Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping,
Pressure Vessel and Components ................................................................. 294
6.3 Stainless Steel Forgings .............................................................................................................. 295
6.3.1A Chemical Composition of Martensitic Stainless Steel Forgings ..................................... 295
6.3.1B Mechanical Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel Forgings...................................... 296
6.3.2A Chemical Composition of Ferritic Stainless Steel Forgings............................................ 297
6.3.2B Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Forgings ............................................ 297
6.3.3A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steel Forgings ....................................... 298
6.3.3B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Forgings........................................ 302
6.3.4A Chemical Composition of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Forgings ................. 307
6.3.4B Mechanical Properties of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Forgings.................. 308
6.3.5A Chemical Composition of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steel Forgings ............ 309
6.3.5B Mechanical Properties of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steel Forgings............. 310
6.4 Non-Comparable Carbon Steel Forgings for General Use.......................................................... 311
6.5 Non-Comparable Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping, Pressure Vessel and Components ........... 311
6.6 Non-Comparable Alloy Steel Forgings for General Use .............................................................. 311
6.7 Non-Comparable Alloy Steel Forgings for Piping, Pressure Vessel and Components ............... 312
6.8 Non-Comparable Stainless Steel Forgings.................................................................................. 313
7. Steel Castings.................................................................................................................................... 315
7.1 Cast Carbon Steels ...................................................................................................................... 319
7.1.1A Mechanical Properties of Cast Carbon Steel for General and Structural Applications... 319
7.1.1B Chemical Composition of Cast Carbon Steel for General and Structural Applications .. 323
7.1.2A Mechanical Properties of Cast Carbon Steel for Pressure Purposes at
High Temperatures ......................................................................................................... 326
7.1.2B Chemical Composition of Cast Carbon Steel for Pressure Purposes at
High Temperatures ......................................................................................................... 326
7.1.3A Mechanical Properties of Cast Carbon Steel for Pressure Purposes at
Low Temperatures .......................................................................................................... 327
7.1.3B Chemical Composition of Cast Carbon Steel for Pressure Purposes at
Low Temperatures .......................................................................................................... 327
7.2 Cast Manganese Steels ............................................................................................................... 328
7.2A Chemical Composition of Cast Manganese Steels......................................................... 328
7.2B Mechanical Properties of Cast Manganese Steels ......................................................... 329
7.3 Cast Alloy Steels .......................................................................................................................... 330
7.3.1A Chemical Composition of Cast Alloy Steels for General and Structural Purposes......... 330
7.3.1B Mechanical Properties of Cast Alloy Steels for General and Structural Purposes ......... 331
7.3.2A Chemical Composition of Cast Alloy Steels for Pressure Purposes at
High Temperatures ......................................................................................................... 335
7.3.2B Mechanical Properties of Cast Alloy Steels for Pressure Purposes at
High Temperatures ......................................................................................................... 336
7.3.3A Chemical composition of Cast Alloy Steels for Pressure Purposes at
Low Temperatures .......................................................................................................... 337
7.3.3B Mechanical Properties of Cast Alloy Steels for Pressure Purposes at
Low Temperatures .......................................................................................................... 338

7.4 Cast Stainless Steels ................................................................................................................... 339
7.4.1 Cast Stainless Steels for General and Corrosion Resistant Applications....................... 339
7.4.1.1A Chemical Composition of Martensitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels for
General and Corrosion Resistant Applications ................................................ 339
7.4.1.1B Mechanical Properties of Martensitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels for
General and Corrosion Resistant Applications ................................................ 340
7.4.1.2A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels for General and
Corrosion Resistant Applications ..................................................................... 341
7.4.1.2B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels for General and
Corrosion Resistant Applications ..................................................................... 344
7.4.2 Cast Stainless Steels for Pressure Purposes ................................................................. 347
7.4.2.1A Chemical Composition of Martensitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels for
Pressure Purposes........................................................................................... 347
7.4.2.1B Mechanical Properties of Martensitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels for
Pressure Purposes........................................................................................... 348
7.4.2.2A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Purposes. 349
7.4.2.2B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Pressure Purposes . 350
7.5 Cast Heat Resistant Steels .......................................................................................................... 351
7.5A Chemical Composition of Cast Heat Resistant Steels.................................................... 351
7.5B Mechanical Properties of Cast Heat Resistant Steels .................................................... 355
7.6 Non-Comparable Cast Carbon Steels ......................................................................................... 359
7.7 Non-Comparable Cast Manganese Steels .................................................................................. 360
7.8 Non-Comparable Cast Alloy Steels ............................................................................................. 360
7.9 Non-Comparable Cast Stainless Steels for General and Corrosion Resistant Applications ....... 361
7.10 Non-Comparable Cast Stainless Steels for Pressure Purposes.................................................. 361
7.11 Non-Comparable Cast Heat Resistant Steels.............................................................................. 362
8. Wrought Stainless Steels .................................................................................................................. 363
8.1 Stainless Steels: Plate, Sheet and Strip ...................................................................................... 366
8.1.1A Chemical Composition of Martensitic Stainless Steels................................................... 366
8.1.1B Mechanical Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steels ................................................... 367
8.1.2A Chemical Composition of Ferritic Stainless Steels ......................................................... 368
8.1.2B Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steels.......................................................... 370
8.1.3A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels..................................................... 372
8.1.3B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels ..................................................... 377
8.1.4A Chemical Composition of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels .............................. 387
8.1.4B Mechanical Properties of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels............................... 388
8.1.5A Chemical Composition of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steels.......................... 392
8.1.5B Mechanical Properties of Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steels .......................... 393
8.2 Stainless Steels: Bar .................................................................................................................... 394
8.2.1A Chemical Composition of Martensitic Stainless Steels................................................... 394
8.2.1B Mechanical Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steels ................................................... 396
8.2.2A Chemical Composition of Ferritic Stainless Steels ......................................................... 398
8.2.2B Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steels.......................................................... 399
8.2.3A Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels..................................................... 400
8.2.3B Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels ..................................................... 403
8.2.4A Chemical Composition of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels .............................. 409
8.2.4B Mechanical Properties of Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels............................... 410
8.2.5A Chemical Composition of Duplex Stainless Steels ........................................................ 412
8.2.5B Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels ......................................................... 412
8.3 Non-Comparable Stainless Steel Standards: Plate, Sheet and Strip .......................................... 413
8.4 Non-Comparable Stainless Steel Standards: Bar........................................................................ 415

9. Steels for Special Use........................................................................................................................ 417
9.1 Free-Machining Steels ................................................................................................................. 420
9.1.1 Chemical Composition of Resulfurized Carbon Steels for
Free-Machining Applications........................................................................................... 420
9.1.2 Chemical Composition of Rephosphorized and Resulfurized Carbon Steels for
Free-Machining Applications........................................................................................... 422
9.1.3 Chemical Composition of Resulfurized and Leaded Carbon Steels for
Free-Machining Applications........................................................................................... 423
9.1.4 Chemical Composition of Rephosphorized, Resulfurized, and
Leaded Carbon Steels for Free-Machining Applications ................................................ 424
9.1.5 Chemical Composition of Free-Machining Stainless Steels ........................................... 424
9.2 Spring Steels ............................................................................................................................... 425
9.2.1 Chemical Composition of Cold Rolled Carbon Spring Steels ......................................... 426
9.2.2 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Alloy Spring Steels............................................... 427
9.2.2.1 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Si Alloy Spring Steels............................ 427
9.2.2.2 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Cr Alloy Spring Steels ........................... 427
9.2.2.3 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Cr-Si Alloy Spring Steels....................... 427
9.2.2.4 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Cr-Mo Alloy Spring Steels ..................... 428
9.2.2.5 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Cr-V Alloy Spring Steels........................ 428
9.2.2.6 Chemical Composition of Hot Rolled Cr-B Alloy Spring Steels........................ 428
9.2.3 Chemical Composition of Stainless Spring Steels.......................................................... 429
9.3 Tool Steels .................................................................................................................................. 430
9.3.1 Chemical Composition of Carbon Tool Steels ................................................................ 430
9.3.2 Chemical Composition of High-Speed Tool Steels......................................................... 431
9.3.2.1 Chemical Composition of Tungsten Type High Speed Tool Steels ................. 431
9.3.2.2 Chemical Composition of Molybdenum Type High Speed Tool Steels ........... 432
9.3.3 Chemical Composition of Cold Work Tool Steels ........................................................... 433
9.3.4 Chemical Composition of Hot Work Tool Steels............................................................. 434
9.3.5 Chemical Composition of Special Purpose Tool Steels.................................................. 434
9.4 Bearing Steels .............................................................................................................................. 435
9.4.1 Chemical Composition of Bearing Steels........................................................................ 435
9.5 Non-Comparable Free-Machining Steels..................................................................................... 436
9.6 Non-Comparable Spring Steels ................................................................................................... 437
9.7 Non-Comparable Tool Steels....................................................................................................... 438
9.8 Non-Comparable Bearing Steels ................................................................................................. 439
Appendix 1 - ASTM Ferrous Metal Standards...................................................................................... 441
Appendix 2 - ASTM Discontinued Ferrous Metal Standards .............................................................. 457
Appendix 3 - JIS Steel and Related Standards .................................................................................... 469
Appendix 4 - JIS Discontinued Steel and Related Standards ............................................................ 475
Appendix 5 - CEN Current Steel Standards.......................................................................................... 479
Appendix 6 - CEN Standards with Superseded Former National Standards.................................... 485
Appendix 7 - Former National Standards Superseded by CEN Standards....................................... 503
Appendix 8 - ISO Iron and Steel Product Standards ........................................................................... 523
Appendix 9 - ASTM A 941-03 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel,
Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys...................................................................................... 531
Appendix 10 - ASTM E 527–83 (2003) Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)..................................... 539
Appendix 11 - SI Quick Reference Guide ............................................................................................. 547
Steel Grade/Name Index ......................................................................................................................... 553
UNS Number Index................................................................................................................................. 601
Steel Number Index................................................................................................................................ 609
Specification Designation Index............................................................................................................ 617

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