كناب Internal Combustion Engine Handbook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كناب Internal Combustion Engine Handbook

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين


عدد المساهمات : 2044
التقييم : 3386
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 39
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

مُساهمةموضوع: كناب Internal Combustion Engine Handbook   الأربعاء 31 أكتوبر 2012, 8:19 am

اخوانى فى الله
معى اليوم كتاب Internal
Combustion Engine
Handbook
Basics, Components, Systems,
and Perspectives
Edited by
Richard van Basshuysen
and
Fred Schäfe

Contents
1 Historical Review 1
2 Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines 9
2.1 Definitions 9
2.2 Potentials for Classification 10
2.2.1 Combustion Processes 10
2.2.2 Fuel 10
2.2.3 Working Cycles 11
2.2.4 Mixture Generation 11
2.2.5 Gas Exchange Control 11
2.2.6 Supercharging 11
2.2.7 Configuration 11
2.2.8 Ignition 12
2.2.9 Cooling 12
2.2.10 Load Adjustment 13
2.2.11 Applications 13
2.2.12 Speed and Output Graduations 14
3 Characteristics 15
3.1 Piston Displacement and Bore-to-Stroke Ratio 15
3.2 Compression Ratio 16
3.3 Rotational Speed and Piston Speed 17
3.4 Torque and Power 18
3.5 Fuel Consumption 19
3.6 Gas Work and Mean Pressure 20
3.7 Efficiency 22
3.8 Air Throughput and Cylinder Charge 23
3.9 Air-Fuel Ratio 24
4 Maps 27
4.1 Consumption Maps 28
4.2 Emission Maps 29
4.3 Ignition and Injection Maps 32
4.4 Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps 33
5 Thermodynamic Fundamentals 35
5.1 Cyclical Processes 35
5.2 Comparative Processes 36
5.2.1 Simple Model Processes 36
5.2.1.1 Constant Volume Cycle 37
5.2.1.2 Constant Pressure Cycle 37
5.2.1.3 Seiliger Process 37
5.2.1.4 Comparison of the Cyclical Processes 39
5.2.2 Energy Losses 39
5.3 Open Comparative Processes 39
5.3.1 Work Cycle of the Perfect Engine 39
5.3.1.1 Elements of Calculation 40
5.3.1.2 Work of the Perfect Engine 41
5.3.1.3 Effectiveness of the Perfect Engine 41
5.3.1.4 Exergy Loss in the Perfect Cycle 42
5.3.2 Approximation of the Real Working Cycle 42
5.3.2.1 Models to Determine Combustion Behavior 42
5.4 Efficiency 44
5.5 Energy Balance in the Engine 45
5.5.1 Balance Equation 45
6 Crank Gears 47
6.1 Crankshaft Drive 47
6.1.1 Design and Function 47
6.1.2 Forces Acting on the Crankshaft Drive 51
Contents
6.1.3 Tangential Force Characteristic and Average Tangential Force 56
6.1.4 Inertial Forces 59
6.1.4.1 Inertial Forces in Single-Cylinder Crank Gears 59
6.1.4.2 Inertial Forces in a Two-Cylinder V Crank Gear 60
6.1.4.3 Inertial Forces and Inertial Torque in Multicylinder Crank Gears 62
6.1.4.4 Example 63
6.1.5 Mass Balancing 65
6.1.5.1 Balancing Single-Cylinder Crank Gears 65
6.1.5.2 Balancing Multicylinder Crank Gears 66
6.1.6 Internal Torque 68
6.1.7 Throw and Firing Sequences 69
6.2 Rotational Oscillations 70
6.2.1 Fundamentals 70
6.2.2 Reduction of the Machine System 71
6.2.3 Natural Frequencies and Modes of Natural Vibration 71
6.2.4 Exciter Forces And Exciter Work 73
6.2.5 Measures to Reduce Crankshaft Excursions 74
6.2.6 Two-Mass Flywheels 75
7 Engine Components 79
7.1 Pistons / Wristpins / Wristpin Circlips 79
7.1.1 Pistons 79
7.1.1.1 Requirements and Functions 79
7.1.1.2 Engineering Designs 79
7.1.1.3 Offsetting the Boss Bore 81
7.1.1.4 Installation Play and Running Play 81
7.1.1.5 Piston Masses 82
7.1.1.6 Operating Temperatures 83
7.1.1.7 Piston Cooling 84
7.1.1.8 Piston Designs 84
7.1.1.9 Piston Manufacture 88
7.1.1.10 Protection of Running Surfaces/Surfaces 89
7.1.1.11 Piston Materials 90
7.1.2 Wristpins 92
7.1.2.1 Functions 92
7.1.2.2 Designs 92
7.1.2.3 Requirements and Dimensioning 92
7.1.2.4 Materials 92
7.1.3 Wristpin Snap Rings 92
7.2 Connecting Rod 93
7.2.1 Design of the Connecting Rod 94
7.2.2 Loading 94
7.2.3 Conrod Bolts 95
7.2.4 Design 96
7.2.4.1 Conrod Ratio 97
7.2.5 Conrod Manufacture 97
7.2.5.1 Manufacturing the Blank 97
7.2.5.2 Machining 98
7.2.6 Conrod Materials 98
7.3 Piston Rings 100
7.3.1 Embodiments 100
7.3.1.1 Compression Rings 100
7.3.1.2 Oil Control Rings 101
7.3.2 Ring Combinations 102
7.3.3 Characterizing Features 103
7.3.4 Manufacturing 104
7.3.4.1 Shaping 104
7.3.4.2 Wear-Protection Layers 104
7.3.4.3 Surface Treatments 105
7.3.4.4 Contact Surface Shapes for Piston Rings 106
7.3.4.5 Materials for Piston Rings 106
7.3.5 Loading, Damage, Wear, Friction 106
7.4 Engine Block 107
7.4.1 Assignments and Functions 107
XXVII
7.4.2 Engine Block Design 110
7.4.2.1 Types of Engine Blocks 110
7.4.3 Optimizing Acoustic Properties 114
7.4.4 Minimizing Engine Block Mass 115
7.4.5 Casting Processes for Engine Blocks 117
7.4.5.1 Die Casting 117
7.4.5.2 Die Casting 117
7.4.5.3 Lost-Foam Process 117
7.4.5.4 Sand Casting 118
7.4.5.5 Squeeze Casting 118
7.5 Cylinders 118
7.5.1 Cylinder Designs 118
7.5.1.1 Monolithic Design 118
7.5.1.2 Insertion Technique 119
7.5.1.3 Bonding Technology 121
7.5.2 Machining Cylinder Running Surfaces 121
7.5.2.1 Machining Processes 122
7.5.3 Cylinder Cooling 122
7.5.3.1 Water Cooling 122
7.5.3.2 Air Cooling 124
7.6 Oil Pan 124
7.6.1 Oil Pan Design 124
7.7 Crankcase Venting 125
7.7.1 Conventional Crankcase Ventilation 125
7.7.2 Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PVC) System 126
7.7.3 Vacuum-Regulated Crankcase Ventilation 126
7.8 Cylinder Head 126
7.8.1 Basic Design for the Cylinder Head 127
7.8.1.1 Layout of the Basic Geometry 127
7.8.1.2 Determining the Manufacturing Processes 128
7.8.1.3 Layout of the Gas Exchange Components 128
7.8.1.4 Variable Valve Control 128
7.8.2 Cylinder Head Engineering 128
7.8.2.1 Laying out the Rough Dimensions 128
7.8.2.2 Combustion Chamber and Port Design 129
7.8.2.3 Valve Train Design 131
7.8.2.4 Cooling Concepts 132
7.8.2.5 Lubricating Oil Management 132
7.8.2.6 Engineering Design Details 133
7.8.2.7 Engineering in Construction Steps 133
7.8.2.8 Using CAD in Engineering 134
7.8.2.9 Computer-Assisted Design 134
7.8.3 Casting Process 137
7.8.3.1 Sand Casting 137
7.8.3.2 Die Casting 138
7.8.3.3 Lost-Foam Process (Full Mold Process) 139
7.8.3.4 Pressure Die-Casting Process 140
7.8.4 Model and Mold Construction 141
7.8.5 Machining and Quality Assurance 142
7.8.5.1 Mass-Production Manufacture 142
7.8.5.2 Prototype Manufacturing 142
7.8.5.3 Quality Assurance for Cylinder Heads 142
7.8.6 Shapes Implemented for Cylinder Heads 143
7.8.6.1 Cylinder Heads for Gasoline Engines 143
7.8.6.2 Cylinder Heads for Diesel Engines 145
7.8.6.3 Special Cylinder Head Designs 146
7.8.7 Perspectives in Cylinder Head Technology 148
7.9 Crankshafts 148
7.9.1 Function in the Vehicle 148
7.9.1.1 The Crankshaft in the Reciprocating Piston Engine 149
7.9.1.2 Requirements 149
7.9.2 Manufacturing and Properties 149
7.9.2.1 Process and Materials 149
7.9.2.2 Materials Properties for Crankshafts 157.9.3 Lightweight Engineering and Future Trends 151
7.9.3.1 Hollow Cast Crankshafts 151
7.9.3.2 ADI Austempered Ductile Iron 151
7.9.3.3 Increasing Component Strength through Postcasting Treatment 151
7.10 Valve Train Components 152
7.10.1 Valve Train 152
7.10.1.1 Direct Drive Valve Trains 152
7.10.1.2 Indirect Drive Valve Trains 153
7.10.1.3 Hydraulic Valve Play Compensation 156
7.10.1.4 Mechanical Valve Play Adjustment 156
7.10.1.5 Future Trends 157
7.10.2 Belt Tensioning Systems, Idler and Deflection Pulleys 161
7.10.2.1 Introduction 161
7.10.2.2 Automatic Belt Tensioning System for Synchronous Belt Drives 161
7.10.2.3 Idler and Deflection Pulleys for Synchronous Belt Drives 162
7.10.2.4 Prospects for the Future 162
7.10.3 Chain Tensioning and Guide Systems 162
7.10.3.1 Introduction 162
7.10.3.2 Chain Tensioning Element 163
7.10.3.3 Tensioning and Guide Rails 164
7.10.3.4 Sprockets 164
7.11 Valves 165
7.11.1 Functions and Explanation of Terms and Concepts 165
7.11.2 Types of Valves and Manufacturing Techniques 165
7.11.2.1 Monometallic Valves 165
7.11.2.2 Bimetallic Valves 165
7.11.2.3 Hollow Valve 166
7.11.3 Embodiments 167
7.11.3.1 Valve Head 167
7.11.3.2 Valve Seat 167
7.11.3.3 Valve Stem 167
7.11.4 Valve Materials 168
7.11.4.1 Heat Treatment 169
7.11.4.2 Surface Finishing 169
7.11.5 Special Valve Designs 169
7.11.5.1 Exhaust Control Valves 169
7.11.6 Valve Keepers 170
7.11.6.1 Tasks and Functioning 170
7.11.6.2 Manufacturing Techniques 170
7.11.7 Valve Rotation Devices 170
7.11.7.1 Function 170
7.11.7.2 Designs and Functioning 171
7.12 Valve Springs 171
7.13 Valve Seat Inserts 174
7.13.1 Introduction 174
7.13.2 Demands Made on Valve Seat Inserts 175
7.13.2.1 Loading on Valve Seat Inserts 175
7.13.2.2 Materials and Their Properties 177
7.13.2.3 Geometry and Tolerances 179
7.13.2.4 Cylinder Head Geometry and Assembly 181
7.14 Valve Guides .182
7.14.1 Requirements for Valve Guides 182
7.14.1.1 Loading on Valve Guides 182
7.14.2 Materials and Properties 184
7.14.2.1 Materials 184
7.14.2.2 Materials Properties 185
7.14.3 Geometry of the Valve Guide 187
7.14.4 Installing in the Cylinder Head 189
7.15 Oil Pump 189
7.15.1 Overview of Oil Pump Systems 189
7.15.1.1 Internal Gear Pump 189
7.15.1.2 External Gear Pump 191
7.15.1.3 Vane Pumps 191
7.15.1.4 Benefits and Drawbacks of Individual Pump Systems 17.15.2 Regulation Principles 192
7.15.2.1 Direct Regulation 192
7.15.2.2 Indirect Regulation 192
7.15.2.3 Regulation in the Clean Oil Stream 193
7.15.2.4 Two-Stage or Multistage Regulation 193
7.15.2.5 Two-Stage Regulation Pump 194
7.15.2.6 Regulated Internal Gear Pump 194
7.15.2.7 Regulated External Gear Pump 194
7.15.2.8 Regulated Vane Pump 194
7.15.3 Engineering Basics 194
7.15.3.1 Crankshaft Pump 195
7.15.3.2 Sump Pump 196
7.15.3.3 Key Oil Pump Values Taken from Practice 197
7.15.3.4 Comparison between Crankshaft and Sump Pumps 197
7.15.3.5 Cavitation and Noise Emissions 198
7.15.4 Calculation 201
7.15.4.1 Numerical Simulation of Flow—CFD 201
7.15.4.2 One-Dimensional Simulation of Flow Grids 201
7.16 Camshaft 201
7.16.1 Camshaft Functions 202
7.16.2 Valve Train Configurations 202
7.16.3 Structure of a Camshaft 203
7.16.4 Technologies and Materials 203
7.16.4.1 Cast Camshaft 204
7.16.4.2 Assembled Camshaft 204
7.16.4.3 Steel Camshaft 205
7.16.4.4 Materials Properties and Recommended Matches 206
7.16.5 Reduction of Mass. 206
7.16.6 Factors Influencing Camshaft Loading 207
7.16.7 Designing Cam Profiles 207
7.16.8 Kinematics Calculation 208
7.16.9 Dynamics Calculations 210
7.16.10 Camshaft Shifter Systems 210
7.17 Chain Drive 213
7.17.1 Chain Designs 213
7.17.2 Typical Chain Values 214
7.17.3 Sprockets 215
7.17.4 Chain Guide Elements 215
7.18 Belt Drives 216
7.18.1 Belt Drives Used to Drive Camshafts 217
7.18.1.1 Synchronous Belt Drive 217
7.18.1.2 Synchronous Belt Drive System 219
7.18.1.3 Synchronous Belt Dynamics 221
7.18.1.4 Application Examples 221
7.18.2 Toothed V-Belt Drive to Power Auxiliary Units 221
7.18.2.1 Micro-V® Drive Belts 222
7.18.2.2 Auxiliary Component Drive System 223
7.18.2.3 Application Examples 224
7.19 Bearings in Internal Combustion Engines 224
7.19.1 Fundamentals 224
7.19.1.1 Radial Bearing 224
7.19.1.2 Axial Bearing 225
7.19.2 Calculating and Dimensioning Engine Bearings 226
7.19.2.1 Loading 226
7.19.2.2 Bearing Journal Displacement Path 227
7.19.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Calculation 227
7.19.2.4 Major Dimensions: Diameter, Width 229
7.19.2.5 Oil Feed Geometry 229
7.19.2.6 Precision Dimensions 229
7.19.3 Bearing Materials 230
7.19.3.1 Bearing Metals 231
7.19.3.2 Overlays 233
7.19.4 Types of Bearings—Structure, Load-Bearing Capacity, Use 235
7.19.4.1 Solid Bearings 2357.19.4.2 Two-Material Bearing 236
7.19.4.3 Three-Material Bearing 237
7.19.4.4 Miba™ Grooved Bearings 237
7.19.4.5 Sputter Bearing 237
7.19.5 Bearing Failure 237
7.19.5.1 Progress of Damage 237
7.19.5.2 Types of Bearing Damage 239
7.19.6 Prospects for the Future 240
7.20 Intake Systems 240
7.20.1 Thermodynamics in Air Intake Systems 240
7.20.2 Acoustics 243
7.21 Sealing Systems 247
7.21.1 Cylinder Head Sealing Systems 247
7.21.1.1 Ferrolastic Elastomer Head Gaskets 247
7.21.1.2 Metal-Elastomer Head Gaskets 248
7.21.1.3 Metaloflex® Layered Metal Head Gaskets 248
7.21.1.4 Prospects for the Future 251
7.21.2 Special Seals 251
7.21.2.1 Functional Description of the Flat Seal 251
7.21.2.2 Elastomer Seals 251
7.21.2.3 Metal-Elastomer Seals 252
7.21.2.4 Special Metaloseal® Gaskets 253
7.21.2.5 Prospects for the Future 255
7.21.3 Elastomer Sealing Systems 255
7.21.3.1 Elastomer Seals 255
7.21.3.2 Metal-Elastomer Gaskets 256
7.21.3.3 Modules 257
7.21.4 Development Methods 258
7.21.4.1 Finite Element Analysis 258
7.21.4.2 Simulation in the Laboratory—Testing Functions and Service L i f e . . . . . 2 6 0
7.22 Threaded Connectors at the Engine 262
7.22.1 High-Strength Threaded Connectors 262
7.22.2 Quality Requirements 262
7.22.3 Threaded Connectors 263
7.22.3.1 Head Bolt 263
7.22.3.2 Main Bearing Cap Bolt 264
7.22.3.3 Conrod Bolt 264
7.22.3.4 Belt Pulley Bolt 266
7.22.3.5 Flywheel Bolt 267
7.22.3.6 Camshaft Bearing Cap Bolt 267
7.22.3.7 Oil Pan Attaching Screws 267
7.22.4 Threaded Connections in Magnesium Components 268
7.22.5 Screw Tightening Process 268
7.22.5.1 Torque-Controlled Tightening 268
7.22.5.2 Rotation-Angle Controlled Tightening 269
7.22.5.3 Tightening under Yield Point Control 270
7.23 Exhaust Manifold 270
7.23.1 Manifold Development Process 272
7.23.2 Manifolds as Individual Components 272
7.23.2.1 Cast Manifold 272
7.23.2.2 Tube Manifold 273
7.23.2.3 Single-Wall, Half-Shell Manifold 273
7.23.2.4 Manifolds with Air Gap Insulation (AGI Manifold) 274
7.23.3 The Manifold as a Submodule 274
7.23.3.1 Integrated Manifold and Catalytic Converter 274
7.23.3.2 Integrated Manifold and Turbochanger 274
7.23.4 Manifold Components 275
7.24 Control Mechanisms for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines 275
8 Lubrication 279
8.1 Tribological Principles 279
8.1.1 Friction 279
8.1.2 Wear 280
8.2 Lubrication System 281Contents XXXI
8.2.1 Lubrication 281
8.2.2 Components and Function 281
9 Friction 289
9.1 Parameters 289
9.2 Friction States 289
9.3 Methods of Measuring Friction 290
9.4 Influence of the Operating State and the Boundary Conditions 291
9.4.1 Run-in State of the Internal Combustion Engine 291
9.4.2 Oil Viscosity 291
9.4.3 Temperature Influence 292
9.4.4 Engine Operating Point 292
9.5 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption 293
9.6 Friction Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines Already Built 294
9.6.1 Breakdown of Friction 294
9.6.2 Engine Power Unit 295
9.6.2.1 Crankshaft 295
9.6.2.2 Conrod Bearing and Piston Group 296
9.6.2.3 Mass Balancing 297
9.6.3 Valve Timing (Valve Train and Timing Gear) 297
9.6.4 Auxiliaries . 297
9.6.4.1 Oil Pump 299
9.6.4.2 Coolant Pump 300
9.6.4.3 Alternator 300
9.6.4.4 Fuel Injection Pump 301
9.6.4.5 Air Conditioning Compressor 301
9.6.4.6 Radiator Fan . 302
9.6.4.7 Power Steering Pump 302
9.6.4.8 Vacuum Pump 302
10 Charge Cycle 305
10.1 Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines 305
10.1.1 Valve Gear Designs 306
10.1.2 Components of the Valve Gear 307
10.1.3 Kinematics and Dynamics of the Valve Gear 312
10.1.4 Design of Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines 314
10.2 Calculating Charge Cycles 325
10.3 The Charge Cycle in Two-Stroke Engines 328
10.3.1 Scavenging 328
10.3.2 Gas Exchange Organs 330
10.3.3 Scavenging Air Supply 331
10.4 Variable Valve Actuation 333
10.4.1 Camshaft Timing Devices 335
10.4.1.1 Overview of the Functional Principles of Camshaft Timing D e v i c e s . . . . . 3 3 5
10.4.1.2 The Effects of Camshaft Timing Devices on Engines 337
10.4.1.3 Camshaft Adjusters for Production Engines 338
10.4.1.4 Reflections about Camshaft Adjusters 341
10.4.2 Systems with Stepped Variation of the Valve Stroke or Opening Time 342
10.4.3 Infinitely Variable Valve Actuation 344
10.4.3.1 Mechanical Systems 344
10.4.3.2 Hydraulically Actuated Systems 344
10.4.3.3 Electromechanical Systems 345
10.5 Pulse Charges and Load Control of Reciprocating Piston Engines Using an Air Stroke Valve 346
10.5.1 Introduction 346
10.5.2 Design and Operation of the Air Stroke Valve 346
10.5.3 Options for Influencing the Charge Cycle 347
10.5.3.1 Dynamic Supercharging in Induction Engines (Pulse Charge) 347
10.5.3.2 Supporting and Recharging Supercharged Engines 347
10.5.3.3 Throttle-Free Load Control 348
10.5.3.4 EGR Control 348
10.5.3.5 Hot Charging 348
10.5.3.6 Cold Charging Supercharged Engines 349
10.5.3.7 Cylinder Shutoff 349
10.5.4 Prototype for Eng10.5.4.1 Parameters and Design 349
10.5.4.2 Implemented Prototype 349
10.5.5 Demonstration of Function in Single-Cylinder Engines 350
10.5.5.1 Increasing Air Expenditure by Dynamic Supercharging 350
10.5.5.2 Increasing Torque by Dynamic Supercharging 351
10.5.5.3 Required Air Stroke Valve Operating Times in Dynamic Supercharging..352
10.5.5.4 Hot Charging 353
10.5.6 Summary and Outlook 354
11 Supercharging of Internal Combustion Engine 355
11.1 Mechanical Supercharging 355
11.2 Exhaust Gas Turbocharging 356
11.3 Intercooling 358
11.4 Interaction of Engine and Compressor 359
11.4.1 Four-Stroke Engine in the Compressor Map 359
11.4.2 Mechanical Supercharging 361
11.4.3 Exhaust Gas Turbocharging 361
11.5 Dynamic Behavior 366
11.6 Additional Measures for Supercharged Internal Combustion Engines 370
11.6.1 SI Engines 370
11.6.2 Diesel Engines 370
12 Mixture Formation and Related Systems 373
12.1 Internal Mixture Formation 373
12.2 External Mixture Formation 373
12.3 Mixture Formation using Carburetors 373
12.3.1 Mode of Operation of the Carburetor 373
12.3.2 Designs 374
12.3.2.1 Number of Intake Air Ducts 374
12.3.2.2 Position of the Intake Air Duct 375
12.3.2.3 Designs for Special Applications 375
12.3.3 Important Auxiliary Systems on Carburetors 376
12.3.4 Electronically Controlled Carburetors 378
12.3.5 Constant Vacuum Carburetor 379
12.3.6 Operating Behavior 379
12.3.7 Lambda Closed-Loop Control 381
12.4 Mixture Formation by Means of Gasoline Injection 381
12.4.1 Intake Manifold Injection Systems 381
12.4.2 Systems for Direct Injection 382
12.4.2.1 Air-Supported Direct Injection 384
12.4.2.2 High-Pressure Injection 385
12.4.2.3 Injected Fuel Metering 389
12.5 Mixture Formation in Diesel Engines 390
12.5.1 Injection Systems—An Overview 391
12.5.2 Systems with Injection-Synchronous Pressure Generation 395
12.5.2.1 Individual Pump Systems with a Line 396
12.5.2.2 Inline Fuel Injection Pumps 396
12.5.2.3 Distributor Injection Pump 398
12.5.2.4 Pump Nozzle System 401
12.5.3 Systems with a Central Pressure Reservoir 401
12.5.3.1 High-Pressure Pump 402
12.5.3.2 Rail and Lines 404
12.5.3.3 Injectors 405
12.5.3.4 Injection Nozzle 407
12.5.3.5 Electronics 407
12.5.3.6 Developmental Trends 408
12.5.4 Injection Nozzles and Nozzle-Holder Assemblies 408
12.5.5 Adapting the Injection System to the Engine 412
13 Ignition 417
13.1 Spark-Ignition Engine 417
13.1.1 Introduction to Ignition 417
13.1.2 Requirements of the Ignition 13.1.4 Fundamentals of Spark Ignition 417
13.1.4.1 Phases of the Spark 417
13.1.4.2 Energy Transmission Efficiency 418
13.1.5 Coil Ignition System (Inductive) 418
13.1.6 Other Ignition Systems 420
13.1.7 Summary and Outlook 421
13.2 Spark Plugs 421
13.2.1 Demands on Spark Plugs 421
13.2.2 Design 421
13.2.3 Heat Range 422
13.2.4 Required Voltage for Ignition 423
13.2.5 Ignition Characteristic (and Mixture Ignition) 423
13.2.6 Wear 425
13.2.7 Application 426
13.3 Diesel Engines 426
13.3.1 Autoignition and Combustion 426
13.3.2 Diesel Engine Cold Starts 427
13.3.2.1 Important Influential Parameters 427
13.3.2.2 Start Evaluation Criteria 429
13.3.3 Components for Supporting Cold Starts 429
13.3.3.1 Glow Plug Systems 430
13.3.3.2 Heating Flange 432
13.3.4 Outlook 433
13.3.4.1 Combined Systems 433
13.3.4.2 Measurement of Ionic Current 433
13.3.4.3 Regulated Glow Plug Systems 434
14 Combustion 437
14.1 Principles 437
14.1.1 Fuels 437
14.1.2 Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 438
14.2 Combustion in SI Engines 440
14.2.1 Mixture Formation 440
14.2.1.1 Intake Manifold Injection 440
14.2.1.2 Direct Injection 440
14.2.2 Ignition 442
14.2.3 Combustion Process 443
14.2.3.1 Flame Propagation 443
14.2.3.2 Mean Pressure and Fuel Consumption 443
14.2.3.3 Cyclical Fluctuations 444
14.2.3.4 Engine Knock 444
14.3 Combustion in Diesel Engines 446
14.3.1 Mixture Formation 447
14.3.1.1 Phenomenology 447
14.3.1.2 Fuel Jet Propagation 448
14.3.2 Autoignition 449
14.3.3 Combustion Process 451
14.3.3.1 Phenomenological Description 451
14.3.3.2 Equivalent Combustion Curves 452
14.4 Heat Transfer 453
14.4.1 Heat Transfer Model 453
14.4.2 Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients 454
15 Combustion Systems 457
15.1 Combustion Systems for Diesel Engines 457
15.1.1 Diesel Combustion 457
15.1.2 Diesel Four-Stroke Combustion Systems 462
15.1.2.1 Methods using Indirect Fuel Injection (IDI) 463
15.1.2.2 Direct Fuel Injection Method (DI) 465
15.1.2.3 Comparison of Combustion Systems 466
15.1.2.4 Special Methods and Features 468
15.2 Spark-Injection Engines 470
15.2.1 Combustion Processes in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Engines 470
15.2.2 Combustion Process of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines 47915.3 Two-Stroke Diesel Engines 485
15.4 Two-Stroke SI Engines 487
16 Electronics and Mechanics for Engine Management and Transmission Shift Control 491
16.1 Environmental Demands 491
16.2 Stand-Alone Products (Separate Devices) 492
16.3 Connecting Approaches 493
16.4 Integrated Products (MTM = Mechatronic Transmission Module) 494
16.5 Electronic Design, Structures, and Components 495
16.5.1 Basic Structure 495
16.5.2 Electronic Components 495
16.5.2.1 IC Knocking Input Filter Component 495
16.5.2.2 Driver Stage Component 495
16.5.2.3 Microcontroller 497
16.5.2.4 Voltage Regulator 497
16.6 Electronics in the Electronic Control Unit 498
16.6.1 General Description 498
16.6.2 Signal Conditioning 498
16.6.3 Signal Evaluation 500
16.6.4 Signal Output 500
16.6.5 Power Supply 500
16.6.6 CAN Bus Interface 500
16.6.7 Electronics for Transmission ECUs 500
16.7 Software Structures 501
16.7.1 Task of the Software In Controlling Engines 501
16.7.2 Demands on the Software 502
16.7.3 The Layer Approach to Software 502
16.7.4 The Software Development Process 503
16.8 Torque-Based Functional Structure for Engine Management 503
16.8.1 Model-Based Functions Using the Example of Intake Manifold Charging 506
16.9 Functions 508
16.9.1 λ Regulation 508
16.9.2 Antijerk Function 510
16.9.3 Throttle Valve Control 512
16.9.4 Knocking Control 513
16.9.5 "On-Board" Diagnosis (OBD) 514
16.9.5.1 Self-Diagnosis Tasks 516
16.9.5.2 Monitoring the Catalytic Converter 516
16.9.6 Safety Approaches 518
17 The Powertrain 521
17.1 Powertrain Architecture 521
17.2 The Motor-Vehicle's Longitudinal Dynamics 521
17.3 Transmission Types 522
17.4 Power Level and Signal Processing Level 524
17.5 Transmission Management 525
17.5.1 Functions 525
17.5.1.1 Overview 525
17.5.1.2 Driving or Gearshift Strategy 525
17.5.1.3 Automatic Transmissions with Planetary Gears and Torque C o n v e r t e r . . . 5 2 7
17.5.1.4 Automated Stick-Shift Transmissions 527
17.5.1.5 Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) 527
17.6 Integrated Powertrain Management (IPM®) 528
17.7 The Integrated Starter-Motor/Alternator (ISG) 529
17.7.1 ISG: A System Overview 529
17.7.1.1 Torque Structure in a Motor Vehicle 529
17.7.1.2 Starter-Motor/Alternator Structure 530
17.7.1.3 Description of the Starter-Motor/Alternator's Most Important
Modes of Use 530
17.7.2 Converters (Powertrain Management and Voltage Converters) 530
17.7.2.1 Requirements Made on the Electronics from a System V i e w p o i n t . . . . . . . 5 3 0
17.7.2.2 Function Groups and Design Criteria 531
17.7.2.3 Cooling 531
17.7.2.4 Classification of the Converter's Power Electronics 53217.7.2.5 DC/DC Converters 532
17.7.3 Electrical Machine 533
17.7.3.1 Design Criteria 533
17.7.3.2 Simulation Tools 533
17.7.3.3 Thermal Simulation 533
17.7.3.4 Mechanical Strengths 534
17.7.3.5 Requirements Made on the Electrical Machine 534
17.7.4 Series Development 535
18 Sensors 537
18.1 Temperature Sensors 537
18.2 Knock Sensors 537
18.3 Exhaust Gas Sensors 538
18.3.1 Lambda Sensors 538
18.3.2 NOx Sensors 538
18.4 Pressure Sensors 539
18.4.1 Normal Pressure Sensors 539
18.4.1.1 Piezoresistive Measurement Principle 540
18.4.1.2 Capacitive Measurement Principle 540
18.4.2 Medium Pressure Sensors 540
18.4.3 High-Pressure Sensors 541
18.4.3.1 Technical Boundary Conditions 541
18.4.3.2 Signal Transmission 541
18.4.3.3 Measuring Precision 541
18.5 Air Mass Sensors 541
18.5.1 Comparison of Air Mass-Controlled and Intake Manifold Pressure-Controlled S y s t e m s . 5 4 2
18.5.2 Measuring Principles 542
18.5.3 Hot-Film Anemometer 542
18.5.4 Secondary Air Mass Sensors (SAF) 543
18.6 Speed Sensors 543
18.6.1 Passive Speed Sensors 543
18.6.2 Active Sensors 543
19 Actuators 545
19.1 Drives for Charge Controllers 545
19.1.1 Pneumatic Drives 545
19.1.2 Electric Drives 545
19.1.2.1 Stepping Motor 545
19.1.2.2 DC Motor 546
19.1.2.3 Torque Motor 546
19.2 Throttle Valve Actuators 546
19.2.1 Key Function in SI Engines 546
19.2.2 Key Function in Diesel Engines and in Quality-Controlled SI Engines (Direct Injection) 546
19.2.3 Additional Functions 546
19.2.3.1 Idle-Speed Control of SI Engines 546
19.2.3.2 Position Signal 547
19.2.3.3 Dashpot Function 547
19.2.3.4 Cruise Control Function . 547
19.2.4 "Drive by Wire"/E-Gas 547
19.2.5 Charge Pressure Control 548
19.2.6 Vacuum/Prethrottle Actuators 548
19.3 Swirl and Tumble Plates 548
19.3.1 Swirl Plate Actuators (Swirl/Tumble Actuators) 548
19.4 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves 549
19.5 Evaporative Emissions Components 551
19.5.1 Canister-Purge Valves 551
19.5.2 Evaporative Emissions Diagnostics 553
19.5.2.1 Tank Diagnostics with Pressure 553
19.5.2.2 Tank Diagnostics with Vacuum 553
20 Cooling of Internal Combustion Engines 555
20.1 General 555
20.2 Demands on the Cooling System 555
20.3 Principles for Calculation and Simulation TXXXVI Contents
20.4 Engine Cooling Subsystems 557
20.4.1 Coolant Cooling 557
20.4.1.1 Radiator Protection Media 558
20.4.2 Intercooling 559
20.4.3 Exhaust Gas Cooling 560
20.4.4 Oil Cooling 560
20.4.5 Fans and Fan Drives 562
20.5 Cooling Modules 562
20.6 Overall Engine Cooling System 563
21 Exhaust Emissions 565
21.1 Legal Regulations 565
21.1.1 Europe 565
21.1.2 California, USA 565
21.1.3 Japan 567
21.1.4 Harmonizing Exhaust Emission Regulations 568
21.2 Measuring Exhaust Emissions 569
21.2.1 Measuring Techniques for Certifying Automobiles 569
21.2.2 Measuring Technology for Engine Development 569
21.3 Pollutants and Their Origin 574
21.3.1 Spark-Injection Engines 574
21.3.1.1 Restricted Exhaust Emission Components 574
21.3.1.2 Unrestricted Exhaust Components 576
21.3.2 Diesel Engines 576
21.3.2.1 Restricted Exhaust Components 576
21.3.2.2 Unrestricted Exhaust Emission Components 578
21.4 Reducing Pollutants 578
21.4.1 Engine-Related Measures 578
21.4.1.1 Spark-Injection Engines 578
21.4.1.2 Diesel Engines 580
21.5 Exhaust Gas Treatment for Spark-Ignition Engines 582
21.5.1 Catalytic Converter Design and Chemical Reactions 582
21.5.2 Catalytic Converter Approaches for Stoichiometric Engines 583
21.5.2.1 Three-Way Catalytic Converter 583
21.5.2.2 Oxygen Storage Mechanism 584
21.5.2.3 Cold Start Strategies 585
21.5.2.4 Deactivation and Its Effect 587
21.5.3 Catalytic Converter Approaches for Lean-Burn Engines 589
21.5.3.1 Options for NOx Reduction in Lean Exhaust Gas 589
21.5.3.2 The NOx Storage Catalytic Converter 591
21.5.3.3 System with a Precatalytic Converter and NOx Adsorber 596
21.5.4 Metal Catalytic Converter Substrates 597
21.6 Exhaust Treatment in Diesel Engines 601
21.6.1 Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters 601
21.6.1.1 Pollutants in Diesel Exhaust 601
21.6.1.2 Characteristics of Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters 601
21.6.1.3 Deactivating the Catalyst Surface 601
21.6.1.4 Evaluating Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters 603
21.6.2 NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Passenger Cars 604
21.6.2.1 Operating Range of Storage Catalytic Converters 605
21.6.2.2 Desulfurization 605
21.6.2.3 Regeneration Methods 607
21.6.3 Particle Filters 607
21.6.3.1 Particle Definitions and Particle Properties 607
21.6.3.2 Goals of Particle Filtration 609
21.6.3.3 Requirements for Filter Media and Technical Solutions 610
21.6.3.4 Deposition and Adhesion 611
21.6.3.5 Regeneration and Periodic Cleaning 614
21.6.3.6 Regeneration Emissions and Secondary Emissions 617
21.6.3.7 Pressure Loss 618
21.6.3.8 Installation Area and System Integration 619
21.6.3.9 Damage Mechanisms, Experience 619
21.6.3.10 Quality Criteria 620
21.6.3.11 Performance Test, Type Test, OBD, Field Control21.6.3.12 Catalytic Soot Filter 621
21.6.3.13 Particle Measuring 623
22 Operating Fluids 627
22.1 Fuels 627
22.1.1 Diesel Fuel 628
22.1.1.1 Diesel Fuel Components and Composition 628
22.1.1.2 Characteristics and Properties 629
22.1.1.3 Additives for Diesel Fuel 634
22.1.1.4 Alternative Diesel Fuels 635
22.1.2 Gasoline 639
22.1.2.1 Gasoline Components and Composition 639
22.1.2.2 Characteristics and Properties 643
22.1.2.3 Alternative Gasolines 654
22.2 Lubricants 661
22.2.1 Types of Lubricants 661
22.2.2 Task of Lubrication 662
22.2.3 Types of Lubrication 662
22.2.4 Lubrication Requirements 662
22.2.5 Viscosity/Viscosity Index (V.I.) 663
22.2.5.1 Influence of Temperature on Viscosity 663
22.2.5.2 Influence of the Pressure on the Viscosity 664
22.2.5.3 Influence of Shear Speed on Viscosity 664
22.2.6 Basic Liquids 665
22.2.6.1 Mineral Basic Oils 665
22.2.6.2 Synthetic Basic Liquid 666
22.2.7 Additives for Lubricants 666
22.2.7.1 V.I. Improvers 667
22.2.7.2 Detergents and Dispersants 668
22.2.7.3 Antioxidants and Corrosion Inhibitors 668
22.2.7.4 Friction and Wear Reducers (EP/AW Additives) 669
22.2.7.5 Foam Inhibitors 669
22.2.8 Engine Oils for Four-Stroke Engines 669
22.2.8.1 SAE Viscosity Classes for Engine Oils 669
22.2.8.2 Single-Grade Engine Oil 669
22.2.8.3 Multigrade Oils 669
22.2.8.4 Fuel Economy Oils 670
22.2.8.5 Break-In Oils 671
22.2.8.6 Gas Engine Oils 671
22.2.8.7 Methanol Engine Oils 671
22.2.8.8 Hydrogen Engine Oils 671
22.2.8.9 Performance Classes 672
22.2.8.10 Evaluating Used Oil 676
22.2.8.11 Racing Engine Oils 683
22.2.8.12 Wankel Engine Oils 684
22.2.9 Engine Oils for Two-Stroke Engines 684
22.2.9.1 Two-Stroke Performance Classes 684
22.2.9.2 Two-Stroke Test Methods 685
22.3 Coolant 685
22.3.1 Frost Protection 685
22.3.2 Corrosion Protection 687
22.3.3 Specifications 688
23 Filtration of Operating Fluids 689
23.1 Air Filter 689
23.1.1 The Importance of Air Filtration for Internal Combustion Engines 689
23.1.2 Impurities in Engine Intake Air 689
23.1.3 Data for Assessment of Air-Filter Media 689
23.1.4 Measuring Methods and Evaluation 690
23.1.5 Requirements Made on Modern Air-Filter Systems 690
23.1.6 Design Criteria for Engine-Air Filter Elements 691
23.1.7 Filter Housings 692
23.1.7.1 Design of Filter Housings 69223.2.1 Gasoline Fuel Filters 692
23.2.2 Diesel-Fuel Filters 693
23.2.3 The Performance Data of Fuel Filters 696
23.3 Engine-Oil Filtration 696
23.3.1 Wear and Filtration 696
23.3.2 Full-How Oil Filters 697
23.3.3 Removal Efficiency and Filter Fineness 698
23.3.4 Bypass Oil Filtration 699
24 Calculation and Simulation 701
24.1 Strength and Vibration Calculation 701
24.1.1 Procedures and Methods 701
24.1.2 Selected Examples of Applications 703
24.1.3 Piston Calculations 705
24.2 Flow Calculation 713
24.2.1 One- and Quasidimensional Methods 713
24.2.2 Three-Dimensional Flow Calculation 715
24.2.3 Selected Examples of Application 717
25 Combustion Diagnostics 723
25.1 Discussion 723
25.2 Indicating 723
25.2.1 Measuring Systems 724
25.2.2 Quality Criteria 725
25.2.3 Indicating: Prospects 726
25.3 Visualization 726
25.3.1 Functions and Discussion 726
25.3.2 Visualization Methods for Real Engine Operation 727
25.3.2.1 The Radiant Properties of Gas, Gasoline, and Diesel Flames 727
25.3.2.2 Flame Spectroscopy 727
25.3.2.3 Flame Propagation in Premixed Charges with Supplied Ignition 728
25.3.2.4 Flame Propagation in Diffusion Combustion in a Diesel Engine 728
25.3.3 Visualization of Combustion in Real Engine Operation by the
Flame's Intrinsic Luminescence 728
25.3.3.1 Technical Exploitation: Flame Propagation 728
25.3.4 Visualization of Illuminated Processes 732
25.3.4.1 Visualization of Mixture Distribution 733
25.3.4.2 Visualization of Velocity Fields 733
25.3.5 Visualization: The Future 734
26 Fuel Consumption 737
26.1 General Influencing Factors 737
26.1.1 Air Resistance 737
26.1.2 Weight 737
26.1.3 Wheel Resistance 739
26.1.4 Fuel Consumption 739
26.2 Engine Modifications 740
26.2.1 Downsizing 741
26.2.2 Diesel Engine 742
26.2.3 Gasoline Engine 742
26.2.3.1 The Lean-Burn Engine Concept and Direct Injection 742
26.2.3.2 Variable Valve Timing 743
26.2.3.3 Ignition 744
26.2.4 Cylinder Shutoff 745
26.2.4.1 Concept for Reduction of Fuel Consumption 745
26.2.4.2 Consumption Benefits in the Part-Load Range 746
26.3 Transmission Ratios 746
26.3.1 Selection of Direct Transmission 746
26.3.2 Selection of Overall Transmission Ratio in the Highest Gear 747
26.4 Driver Behavior 748
26.5 CO2 Emissions 749
26.5.1 CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption 749
26.5.2 The Influence of Engine Use on CO2 Emissions 750
26.5.3 The Trend in Global CO2 Emissions 750
23.2 Fuel Filters 69227 Noise Emissions 753
27.1 Basic Physical Principles and Terms 753
27.2 Legal Provisions Concerning Emitted Noise 756
27.2.1 Methods of Measuring Emitted Noise 756
27.2.2 Critical Evaluation of the Informational Value of the Emitted Noise Measuring M e t h o d . 7 5 6
27.2.3 Emitted Noise Limits, International Legislation; Future Trends 757
27.3 Sources of Emitted Noise 757
27.4 Emitted Noise-Reduction Provisions 757
27.4.1 Provisions on the Engine 757
27.4.2 Provisions on the Vehicle 758
27.5 Engine Noise in the Vehicle Interior 759
27.6 Acoustic Guidelines for the Engine Designer 761
27.7 Measuring and Analytical Methods 762
27.8 Psychoacoustics 765
27.9 Sound Engineering 765
27.10 Simulation Tools 766
27.11 Antinoise Systems: Noise Reduction using Antinoise 767
28 Alternative Propulsion Systems 769
28.1 The Rationales for Alternatives 769
28.2 The Wankel Engine 769
28.3 Electric Propulsion 769
28.4 Hybrid Propulsion System 772
28.4.1 Storage Systems 773
28.5 The Stirling Engine 773
28.6 Gas Turbines 774
28.7 The Steam Motor 775
28.8 The Fuel Cell as a Vehicle Propulsion System 775
28.8.1 The Structure of the PEM Fuel Cell 777
28.8.2 Hydrogen as the Fuel 778
28.8.3 Methanol as the Fuel 778
28.8.4 Gasoline Engine Fuel 779
28.8.5 The Fuel Cell in the Vehicle 779
28.8.6 Evaluation of the Fuel Cell vis-à-vis Other Propulsion Systems 779
28.9 Summary 780
29 Outlook 783
Index 785
About the Editors 813
Color Section 815

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