كتاب Design for Manufacturing
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Design for Manufacturing

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عدد المساهمات : 14273
التقييم : 22960
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Design for Manufacturing   الجمعة 18 مايو 2012, 11:45 am

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Design for Manufacturing

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

How to realize the bioenergy prospects?
Biomass in Europe
New challenges for bioenergy in Sweden
Dissemination of biomass district heating systems in
Austria : lessons learned
Managing fuelwood supply in Himalayan mountain
forests
Modernizing cane production to enhance the biomass
base in Brazil
Integrating forestry and energy activities in Lithuania
using Swedish know-how
Potential for small-scale bio-fueled district heating and
CHPs in Sweden
Cofiring biomass and natural gas - boosting power
production from sugarcane residues
Techno-economic feasibility of biomass-based electricity
generation in Sri Lanka
Classification of solid biofuels as a tool for market
development
The clean development mechanism (CDM)
The role of carbon finance in project development
Cultivated biomass for the pig iron industry in Brazil
Carbon credits from cogeneration with bagasse
Wood waste cogeneration in Kumasi, Ghana
Bioenergy - realizing the potential now!

View of the product realization process.
Sequence of events prevalent in industry for the
design and manufacture of products.
The team approach often used in industry.
Gage blocks.
Some line standard measuring instruments
(micrometer on left, vernier caliper on the right)
used for size control.
Examples of limit tolerances.
More limit tolerances.
A test specimen being subjected to uniaxial loads.
Plots of engineering stress versus engineering
strain for some specimens tested using the
apparatus shown in Figure ..
A true stress-natural strain curve for
aluminum superimposed on an engineering stressengineering
strain curve.
Determination of the offset yield stress.
Stress-strain curve showing the effects of loading
and reloading in the nonlinear regions of the curve.
Stress-strain curves for a typical aluminum alloy
(plots on the left) at various temperatures and the
stress-strain curve for nylon .
Screw-type injection-molding machine.
Example of a part with an external undercut.
Example of a part with an internal undercut.
Tooling for compression molding.
Two-plate mold showing sprue, gate, and runner
system.
Tooling for transfer molding.
A screw-type extruder.
Some common structural shapes produced by
extrusion.
Post-processing of extruded sheets.
Extrusion blow molding.
External undercut created by choice in the
direction of mold closure.
External undercuts created by location of the
parting plane between the die halves.
Living hinge on computer disk carrying case.
Classification system for basic tool complexity, Cb.
Basic envelope for a part.
Isolated projections of small volume.
Examples of parts with recessed features and
section views of the molds used to produce them.
Photograph of an injection molded part showing
ribs and shutoffs.
Example of parts with ribs and bosses and
sectional views of the molds used to produce them.
Photograph of a part with bosses.
Dividing surface of a part.
Tooling for box-shaped part--shows parting
surface between the core and cavity halves of
the mold.
Tooling for L-bracket.
Examples of internal undercuts.
Form pin used to form internal undercut.
A screen capture from an animation showing the
formation of a part with an internal undercut.
External undercuts.
Side core used to create an external undercut
created by a circular hole.
Simple and complex side shutoffs.
Photograph of part with complex side shutoffs.
Part with cavity in one-half of die.
Determination of cavity detail.
Photographs of parts with low (on left) and high
(on right) cavity detail.
External undercuts caused by features other than
circular, unidirectional holes are considered
extensive external undercuts because the tooling is
more costly to create.
Mold dimensions for two-plate mold.
Value of C for use in Equation .. (If Lm/Hm < ,
then use the value of Hm/Lm to determine C.)
Relative die material cost.
Original Design--Example .. (L = mm,
B = H = mm.)
Original Design--Example .. (L = mm,
B = mm, H = mm.)
Redesigned part.
Photographs of two injection-molded parts.
Classification system for basic relative cycle time, tb.
Example of a part decomposed into a series of
elemental plates.
Examples of elemental plates.
A slender part.
Definition of a slender part.
Example of a frame-like part.
Photograph of a frame-like part.
Two examples of non-partitionable parts due to
geometrical complexity.
Examples of non-partitionable parts due to
extremely difficult to cool features.
Photograph of a part with a difficult to cool feature.
Examples of part partitioning.
Cooling system for part in Figure ..
Examples of part partitioning for parts whose
part envelope is rectangular.
Examples of part partitioning for parts whose
part envelope is cylindrical.
Types of ribbing.
Ribs. The length of the rib is denoted by l, the rib
width by b, the rib height by h, and the wall
thickness of the plate by w. A significant rib is one
where w < h < w, or b > w.
Gusset plate. The thickness of the gusset plate is
denoted by b, the height by h, and the length by l.
The wall thickness of the plate is w.
Bosses. The boss length is denoted by , the width
by bw, the wall thickness by b, the height by h, and
the wall thickness of the plate by w.
Examples of grilled or slotted parts.
Weld lines caused when the flows from two gates
meet.
Example of lateral projections.
Example ..
Example ..
Part partitioning.
Alternate partitioning.
Example ..
Example .--Original design. (L = mm,
B = H = mm.)
Redesigned part.
Sand-casting process.
An illustration of parts with draft and pattern
ready for removal.
Cores required with increasing geometric
complexity and cost. Sprues and risers not
shown.
Creation of shrink holes due to improper location
of a riser.
Investment casting process.
Die cast part with flashing.
Hot chamber die casting machine.
Cold chamber die casting machine.
Carbon dioxide mold casting.
Permanent mold casting.
Alternative designs to eliminate shrink holes and
stress concentrations.
A box-shaped part being injection molded and
die cast.
Effects of mold closure direction and parting line
location on die complexity.
Effect of part design on melt flow.
Classification system for basic complexity, Cb, die
casting.
Cavity detail--die casting.
Mold dimensions for two-plate mold.
Value of C for use in Equation .. (If Lm/Hm < ,
then use the value of Hm/Lm to determine C.)
Relative die material cost.
Original design for Example ..
List of Figures xix
Partitionable (part on the left) and nonpartitionable
parts due to difficult to cool feature
(part in the center) or complex geometry (part on
the right).
Classification system for basic relative cycle time
(Aluminum die castings).
Die-cast part with blistering.
Die-cast part with flow lines.
Die-cast part with no blisters or flow lines.
Various features created using a shearing
operation.
Radius form features created using one or more
large radius punch and die sets.
A shallow drawn part created using one or more
drawing operations.
A bent part created using a wipe forming
operation (see Figure .).
Shearing.
Bending about a straight line using a matched
punch and die.
Bending about a straight line using wipe-down
forming. Wipe-up is also sometimes used.
An illustration of a deep drawing operation using
a circular blank to create a cup-shaped part.
A three-station drawing operation.
An example of embossing.
Two examples of stretch forming. Stretch draw
forming is shown in (a) while rotary stretch
forming is shown in (b).
Conventional spinning.
Cone spinning.
Tube spinning.
Production of a washer using a progressive die.
Production of a washer using a compound die.
Typical die set used for stamping.
Die assembly for producing a link using a
progressive die.
C-frame mechanical press.
Straight-sided mechanical press.
A four-station strip layout for an L-bracket with
holes. Shading indicates material being removed by
use of shearing punches. The bend in this case is
created parallel to the direction of strip feed.
A four-station strip layout for an L-bracket
without holes. Shading indicates material being
removed by use of shearing punches. The bend in
this case is created parallel to the direction of
strip feed.
Use of an idle station to form the part shown in
Figure .. Shading indicates material being
removed by use of shearing punches.
An alternate four-station strip layout for the
L-bracket shown in Figure .. Shading indicates
material being removed by use of shearing punches.
An alternative five-station strip layout for
producing the part shown in Figure ..
A stamped part with a more complex geometry.
A sketch of the unfolded part shown in Figure .
enclosed in a flat rectangular envelope.
Two alternative patterns for beginning the
development of a process plan for the part shown
in Figure ..
Carrier strip added to the pattern selected from
Figure . and workstations labeled.
Creation of workstation .
Alternative notching punches for creation of the
outer form shown in (a).
Creation of workstations and .
One possible process plan for the part shown in
Figure ..
Stamped part with a narrow projection or a
narrow cutout.
Conventional stamping using a progressive die.
Steel rule die. Used for short runs or to blank a
part in order to begin production without waiting
until the conventional die is delivered. Much less
expensive than conventional dies.
A press brake and two of many possible dies used
for bending.
A sample part illustrating piercing, notching,
perforating, and slotting.
A compound die used to produce the same washer
shown in Figure ..
Examples of some distinct feature types.
Feature in opposite directions.
Closely spaced nonperipheral features.
Part with a narrow cutout and a narrow projection.
Example ..
Estimate of the number of active stations required
to produce the part shown in Figure ..
Step in the development of a strip layout for
Example ..
One possible strip layout for Example ..
Parts with nonstraight bends.
Part with a radius form.
Part with a multiple plate junction.
Complex tooling for bends that are not in the
same direction.
A part wipe formed through ~
Tooling for ~ < bend angles < ~ The clearance
between the punch and die must be less than the
sheet thickness of the part.
A rotary bender for bending a part past ~ while
using one workstation.
A part with side-action features.
A part with features near the bend line.
Parts with elemental plates labeled.
Part with singly- and multiply-connected plates.
Primary plate based on largest area.
Primary elemental plate based on maximum
number of bend lines surrounding the plate.
Primary elemental plate based on maximum
number of features.
Part with elemental plates numbered.
Part after Step .
Part after Step .
Part after Step .
Parts with multiple bend stages.
Parts with all the bend lines in the same plane and
all the bends in the same direction.
Part with all bends not in the same direction.
Original sketch of part shown in Figure ..
Alternative designs to part shown in Figure ..
Alternative designs.
Non-stampable design.
Example ..
Estimate of the number of active stations required
to produce the part shown in Figure ..
Some components included in die material cost.
Link laid out on strip in two different orientations.
Example . Original design. All dimensions in mm.
Number of active stations required for Example .
Alternative redesigns for Example .
Original design.
Details of hidden features.
Overlapping plates.
Redesigned part.
Rated tonnage of presses.
Relative machine hourly rate, Chr.
Example .
Redesigned Part.
Reducing the thickness of a cast ingot via rolling
to produce blooms, slabs, and billets. Also shown
are blooms, slabs, and billets converted to
structural shapes, sheet metal, and bars.
Reducing the diameter of a rod using drawing.
An example of extrusion using flat dies.
An example of extrusion using gradually
shaped dies.
An example of forging.
Some open die sets for forging.
An example of closed-die forging using a parallel
flash gutter. Other types of gutter designs exist
that permit the dies to touch upon closure. The
type of gutter used is a function of the forging
equipment used and the workpiece material.
A gravity drop hammer.
A closed die with two die stations. Although
forging dies are often depicted as separate blocker
and conventional dies, this is not usually the case.
Generally, a forging die is divided into two or more
sections or stations and the workpiece is moved
from one station to the other in order to forge
the part.
A mechanically driven forging press.
Some examples of design for extrusion rules.
Principal components and movements of a lathe
and the basic operations that can be performed
on it.
Principal components and movements of
horizontal and vertical milling machines, and the
basic operations the can be performed on them.
Horizontal shaper, used primarily to reduce the
thickness of blocks and plates.
Principal components of electrical discharge
machines (EDM).
Using wire EDM to produce a blanking punch
and die.
A manual assembly operator sitting at a
workstation.
Automatic assemblymfree transfer system.
A four-station automatic assembly system using a
four-station rotary indexing machine.
Example of tooling for automatic handling (From
"Handbook of Feeding and Orienting Techniques
for Small Parts," G. Boothroyd, C. Poli, and L.
Murch, Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Massachusetts at Amherst).
The redesign of an electric shaver cover as
suggested by students as part of a class project.
The drawing shown on the left is that of the
original design. The drawing on the right is their
suggested redesign.
Some examples of parts that tangle.
An example of flexible parts where two hands are
needed to keep orientation prior to insertion.
Examples of end-to-end symmetry.
Examples of rotational symmetry.
Redesign to facilitate alignment.
An example of obstructed access.
An example of obstructed view and access.
Example of redesign in order to make an insertion
of the part self-locating.
Assembly advisor.
Original design of the shaver shown in Figure .
with handling and insertion characteristics of the
individual parts labeled.
Two alternative designs of the revised back cover.
A schematic illustration of the materials-first
approach.
A schematic illustration of the process-first
approach.
Stapler for Example --as drawn by students as
part of a DFM project.
Fishing Reel for Example --as drawn by students
as part of a DFM project.
Injection molding versus die casting, partitionable
parts: i mm < wall thickness < . mm.
Partitionable parts: mm < wall thickness
< . mm.
Partitionable parts: mm < wall thickness
< .mm.
Partitionable parts: mm < wall thickness
< .mm.
Non-partitionable parts; w = wall thickness.
A bracket producible by either injection molding
or stamping. Wall thickness is mm for the molded
version and i mm for the stamped version.
Lul = mm, Lub = mm.
An example part in five orthographic views.
An example assembly drawing in two orthographic
views.
Example orthographic views.
Example orthographic view with dimensions
added. Tolerances not shown.
An oblique view.
An isometric view.
Orthogonal axes for oblique and isometric views.
Oblique and isometric views of a cube.
An example of an isometric drawing of a
production part.
Another example of an isometric drawing for a
production part.
Part of a hand vacuum cleaner (by G. Moodie).
Adjustable three-hole punch (by J. Harve and A.
Tacke).
A small stapler (by N. Renganath and
R. Rajkumar).
Filter bag and nozzle (by G. Moodie).
Can opener: an unacceptable student drawing.
Secondary shears: an unacceptable student
drawing.
Front assembly: an unacceptable student drawing.
Table lamp: an unacceptable student drawing.
Subsidiary complexity rating, Cs.
Tolerance and surface finish rating, C t.
Data for the reference part.
Relative material prices, Cmr , for engineering
thermoplastics. (Based on material prices in
Plastics Technology, June .)
Additional relative time, te, due to inserts and
internal threads.
Time penalty, tp, due to surface requirements and
tolerances.
Machine tonnage and relative hourly rate. (Data
published in Plastic Technology, June .)
Subsidiary Complexity Rating, Cs, for Die Casting.
Tolerance Rating, Ct, for die casting.
Additional relative time, te, due to inserts.
Time penalty, tp, due to surface requirements and
tolerances.
Machine tonnage and relative hourly rate for
die-casting machines. (Data obtained from the
die-casting industry, June .)
Relevant data for the reference part.
Algorithm for determination of the total number
of active stations for shearing and local features.
Algorithm for determination of the total number of
active stations for wipe forming and side-action
features.
Basic hours required to produce various features
using a medium-grade tool. For a high-grade tool
add hours. For a low-grade tool, subtract
hours. (Note: Data based on information
provided by collaborating stampers.)
Build hours required for Example .
Build hours required for Example .
Factors to account for the effects of sheet thickness
on die construction and die material costs.
Determination of the number of stations required.
The subscripts and refer to the number of
stations required for shearing and local forming,
and bending and side-action features, respectively.
Die block and die set size with bottom plate of
die set shown.
Number of build hours required for Example .
Number of build hours required for Example .
Values of Xaa for use in Equation ..
Some relative material prices, Cmr , for sheet metal.
Relevant data for reference part.
Materials for forged parts.
Results of using the assembly advisor to determine
a rough approximation to the assembly time for the
electric shaver cover shown in Figure ..
Preliminary material and process selection:
Metals: Cast.
Preliminary material and process selection:
Metals: Wrought.
Preliminary material and process selection:
Plastics: Thermoplastics.
Preliminary material and process selection:
Plastics: Thermosets.
Preliminary process and material selection:
Wrought Processes.
Preliminary process and material selection:
Casting Processes.
Preliminary process and material selection:
Plastic Processes.
Relevant data for the injection-molded
reference part.
Relevant data for the die-cast reference part.
Machine tonnage and relative hourly rate based
on data published in Plastic Technology or obtained
from die-casting vendors (June ).
Table . Build hours required for the stamped version of
Example .
Table A. Properties of selected cast alloys.
Table A. Properties of selected wrought alloys.
Table A. Properties of selected wrought alloys.
Table A. Properties of selected plastics.

أتمنى أن تستفيدوا منه وأن ينال إعجابكم



الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
mohamed elgindy
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار


عدد المساهمات : 9
التقييم : 9
تاريخ التسجيل : 14/09/2014
العمر : 30
الدولة : egypt
العمل : engineer
الجامعة : elmonofiya

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Design for Manufacturing   الأربعاء 24 سبتمبر 2014, 9:28 am

thank u very

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
mohamed elgindy
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار


عدد المساهمات : 9
التقييم : 9
تاريخ التسجيل : 14/09/2014
العمر : 30
الدولة : egypt
العمل : engineer
الجامعة : elmonofiya

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Design for Manufacturing   الأربعاء 24 سبتمبر 2014, 9:29 am

thank you

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
علاء عبدالحسن الخفاجي
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار


عدد المساهمات : 8
التقييم : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 30/08/2014
العمر : 25
الدولة : العراق
العمل : طالب كلية هندسة
الجامعة : جامعة ذي قار

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Design for Manufacturing   الخميس 25 سبتمبر 2014, 7:01 pm

كتاب رائع احسنتم النشر ووفقكم الله

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كتاب Design for Manufacturing

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