كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition
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 كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition   الثلاثاء 15 مايو 2012, 1:20 am

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Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition
(Malestrom)

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Part 1. Machine Elements in Motion
Part 2. Machine Elements That Absorb and Store Energy
Part 3. Gearing
Part 4. Power Transmission
Part 5. Bearings and Lubrication
1.2 EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library
The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Part 6. Fastening, Joining, and Connecting
Part 7. Load Capability Considerations
Part 8. Performance of Engineering Materials
Part 9. Classical Stress and Deformation Analysis
While there are many ways the nine sections could have been ordered, the order
chosen for this Third Edition provides one sequence of steps to the evolutionary
design process. For example, you might first consider the kinds of motions you need
and how they might be accomplished. Part 1 might help you choose a classic mechanism
or linkage, a cam, or maybe some arrangement of gears. Possibly your design
needs to absorb or store energy, so the chapters included in Part 2 would provide the
information you need. Depending on your design, Parts 3 and 4 cover virtually every
type of gear set, drive type, coupling, and the common elements related to these
devices. Part 5 covers how rotating elements might be supported, typically with
either roller- or journal-type bearings. And if bearings are present, then lubrication
and seals must be carefully considered.
Part 6 continues the design process to the consideration of how components will
be assembled. Are there structural bolts, or just mechanical fasteners, or are parts to
be welded? The coauthor of the chapter on welding is the well-known author of the
preeminent book on welding, so this Handbook should provide all the information
you need relative to this topic.The last chapter in this section presents the complex
procedure necessary to maintain proper fits and tolerances, a full-time job in itself
for some engineers. Everything an engineer needs to know about this area of manufacturing
can be found in this Third Edition of the Handbook.
At some point, loads will be determined, both statically and dynamically; therefore,
Part 7 contains the information you need to make decisions relative to the reliability
of critical parts. Information on vibration, and just as important, its control, is
provided in a chapter in this section. The selection of materials is covered in Part 8
and includes chapters on wear and corrosion.With regard to the problems of corrosion,
one of the main components of a system I was responsible for failed due to
excessive galvanic corrosion. The information contained in this Handbook helped
me not make that mistake again.
The last section, Part 9, contains the classic information on stress and deformation
calculations every mechanical engineer learns in school, but finds escapes
exponentially if not used regularly. Here, four chapters provide every important
calculation practicing engineers should need, and they are introduced in a manner
that can be understood and used with confidence.
1.3 SOME OPPORTUNITIES TO DISCOVER
As mentioned earlier, this Third Edition of the Standard Handbook of Machine
Design has been organized differently as compared to the two previous editions. In
addition to grouping the chapters into nine sections, almost a dozen of the 50 chapters
in the Second Edition, which contained a variety of information ancillary to the
machine design process, have been removed. Therefore, the scope of this edition of
the Handbook is focused on the more traditional machine design topics.
For those familiar with the previous editions, one chapter that was in the First
Edition but not in the Second, “Pressure Cylinders,” has been included in the Third.
This additional chapter is located in Part 9, completing the information important
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN 1.3
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
relative to stress and deformation analysis. Also, one of the chapters in the two previous
editions, “Sections and Shapes—Tabular Data,” is now Appendix A.
Discovering opportunities to improve or evolve your designs successfully is one
of the primary ways we expect you to use this Handbook. Each chapter has considerable
design information and the format used is unique.What follows is a discussion
of just some of the helpful information you will find in each chapter.
Part 1: Machine Elements in Motion
Chapter 2 in this section is undoubtedly one of the most distinctive chapters you will
find anywhere.There is page after page of diagrams of every conceivable mechanism
and machine device.There are snap-action mechanisms, linear actuators, fine adjustment
devices, clamping and locating mechanisms, escapements and indexing mechanisms,
oscillating mechanisms, ratchets and latches, reciprocating and reversing
mechanisms, and couplings (see the commercial designs in Chap. 16) and connectors,
including slider connectors.
There are devices that stop, pause, and hesitate motion, and devices that transport
motion between machine elements.There are two pages of loading and unloading
mechanisms, many that are commonly used for construction and earth-moving
equipment, as well as bulk-handling railcars.You will find path generators, function
generators, and even mechanical computing mechanisms, still finding a place in this
electronic age.There are speed-changing mechanisms and multidegree mechanisms
that form the basis of many robotic-type machines. I hope you enjoy as much as I do
just flipping pages in this one-of-a-kind catalog of mechanical devices.
If a particular linkage catches your eye in Chap. 2, then the information contained
in Chap. 3 takes you many steps further, providing all the geometry of motion
diagrams, or kinematics, you will need. Details of the famous slider-crank and fourbar
linkages are provided. The material in this chapter might seem intimidating
graphically, but without it, the preciseness of the motion you most likely need will be
difficult to achieve any other way.
If your machine requires a cam to achieve its design requirements, then Chap. 4
contains everything about this particular device. From simplified schematics to the
complexity of cam trigonometry, everything a designer will need is here in these
pages. There is even a computer program flowchart to help you develop a comprehensive
analysis of your design, whether you use a programming code like FORTRAN
or a personal computer spreadsheet.
The last chapter in this section, “Gear Trains,” presents all the relative speed calculations
for the two most common arrangements of gears: spur and planetary.Also,
the speed calculations for differential gear trains are presented. Once these calculations
are made, then the detailed specifications can be made using the information
in Part 3.
Part 2: Machine Elements That Absorb and Store Energy
Personally, I have consulted Chap. 6, “Springs,” as much as any other chapter in the
Handbook. It contains information on every kind of spring, from the commonly used
helical spring,with all its variations, to the unique Belleville spring washer.Elliptical
and even torsion bar springs are covered. In fact, basically everything I know about
springs is in this chapter, one of the longest in the Handbook.
1.4 EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Flywheels are an important machine element in devices such as automobile
engines and punch presses. They act like an accumulator tank in an air compressor
system, thus evening out the fluctuations in rotational motion. Careful sizing is necessary
to make sure that just the right amount of inertia is provided. Too much can
cause the system to be have too long a recovery period or too little inertia, causing
the system to loose too much energy between loading cycles. For high-speed flywheels
or machine elements like compressor blades, consideration of the inertial
stresses developed can be important.
The late John Muir, in his book How to Keep Your Volkswagen Alive, said,
“Brakes perform a negative function, applying negative acceleration to stop the car,
remaining inert when not being used.” Brakes may have a negative function; however,
their design can be critical to a successful product. Chapter 8 covers all aspects
of brakes and all aspects of what might be the opposite of brakes—clutches.
Clutches are designed to transfer power evenly and gradually between two shafts
rotating at different speeds, even when one shaft is at rest. There has been a great
deal of ingenuity in the design of brakes and clutches, accounting for many patents
and commercial products. Centrifugal, cone, and disk-type clutches and brakes are
two such commercial success stories. Both brakes and clutches produce significant
temperature gradients in service.The design considerations associated with temperature
variations are covered in this important chapter, including information on
selecting the right clutch or brake materials for your specific application.
Part 3: Gearing
One of the most fascinating sections in this Third Edition of the Handbook is Part 3,
“Gearing.” Most of us as mechanical engineers will never actually be involved in
designing and manufacturing gear sets, even the simplest spur gear. However, it has
always been comforting to know that this Handbook contained everything needed if
we were ever put in the situation of having to design a set of gears. Chapter 9, “Spur
Gears” is relatively short and straightforward, giving the impression that gears are
not that complicated.Then, Chap. 10,“Helical Gears,” makes the point, by the extent
of the information provided, of just how complicated gear sets can be if they are to
be done correctly. This is one of the longest chapters in the Handbook. Another
equally long chapter, 11, covers “Bevel and Hypoid Gears.” This has always been a
special chapter, providing insight into one of the most magical machine elements in
mechanical engineering.There are few vehicles on earth that do not have a differential,
and every differential has either a bevel or hypoid gear set.All the geometry of
motion is explained, with table after table and chart after chart of applicable formulas
and performance data for all variations and design parameters.
I’ve already referred to the importance of the material in Chap. 12,“Worm Gearing,”
in my story about the remote positioning of an antenna feed horn project. As I
said earlier, the information in this chapter was invaluable in helping me modify an
existing design to satisfy the needs of a high-profile customer.
As I look back on the years I spent associated with large antenna systems, it
seems as though every aspect of these systems had me searching the Standard Handbook
of Machine Design for important information. Chapter 13, “Power Screws,”
was another of those chapters I became very familiar with, since the primary positioning
of the antenna dish on the satellite was accomplished by heavy duty power
screws driven by dc motors. This Handbook is where I obtained the information I
needed.
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN 1.5
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Part 4: Power Transmission
This section contains four chapters directed at the requirements of transferring
motion from one rotating axis to another, whether by the time-honored belt
(Chap. 14) or chain (Chap. 15) configurations, or by the wide variety of couplings
(Chap. 16) used to isolate and protect downstream machine elements. This seemed
to be the best place to discuss the design of shafts (Chap. 17), from both a static and
dynamic viewpoint. While new belt, chain, and coupling products are introduced
every year, the basic design considerations remain the same. Speed ratio calculations;
tension adjustment schemes; and materials, many of which are composite constructions,
are universal to these machine elements. Serpentine-notched belts seek
to combine the flexibility and low noise of traditional belt drives, while providing the
positional accuracy to meet strict timing requirements such as in automotive applications.
For large horsepower transfer, metal chain and sprocket drives, usually in
multiple-strand configurations, seem the best approach—and what you need is provided
in this Handbook.
Since lining up shafts exactly is difficult, if not impossible, the usual solution is a
coupling between the shafts.This is another area of intense ingenuity and cleverness,
with many of the successful products highlighted in this section. A complete discussion
of universal joints and constant velocity joints is also included.
Part 5: Bearings and Lubrication
One of the great inventions of the twentieth century is the roller bearing—in particular,
the tapered roller bearing. Roller bearings allow high speeds under relatively
heavy loads not possible before their introduction. Every automobile on the road
today has a plethora of roller-type bearings. Journal bearings, which were the primary
bearing type before the roller bearing, are still an important mechanical design
element. The main and rod bearings in an internal combustion engine are of the
journal type. Chapter 19, “Journal Bearings,” is one of the longest chapters in the
Handbook, punctuating the amount of design information available. Its length also
indicates the extent of the design considerations necessary for their successful use.
Bearings could not do their job without lubrication, and lubrication would be lost
from most bearings without the proper seals. Traditional and nontraditional seal
designs are presented in this section, including those operating in static conditions
and those operating between rotating parts. Lubricants are another product in constant
flux.This Third Edition presents the properties and uses of the more common
and trusted oils, greases, and solid lubricants.
Part 6: Fastening, Joining, and Connecting
Chapter 22, “Bolted and Riveted Joints,” covers the design of bolts and rivets used
not only to hold parts together in an assembly but also as structural elements. Complex
joints in tension and shear are presented, including the effect of gaskets in a
structural joint. Calculations for the proper preload of a structural bolt are provided.
Chapters 23 and 24 cover every conceivable type of mechanical fastener. Chapter
23 presents design information for threaded fasteners while Chap. 24 presents
design information for unthreaded fasteners.
If a connection must contain or keep out gases or liquids, then a gasket is usually
1.6 EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
specified. The types of gaskets typically available and their appropriate application
criteria are provided in Chap. 25.
When disassembly is not required or when maximum strength is needed, then usually
the only solution to connecting separate parts is a weld. All aspects of a welded
connection are presented in Chap. 26.This chapter begins with the basic principles of
the arc welding process, followed by the various commercial processes, including
exhaustive information on the materials used in welding. This chapter also includes
the information needed to design a welded joint to be as strong, or stronger, than the
materials being welded together. Since failure of welded joints has had such a high
impact on the safety of the public, many national codes and industry specifications
have been established and must be met.These are covered in detail in Chap. 26.
As mentioned earlier, the ongoing effort in manufacturing to hold to a high standard
of quality requires a thorough understanding of the factors in fits and tolerances.
Chapter 27 presents the standards of fit universally accepted and the
complications associated with a buildup of tolerances in an assembly.
Part 7: Load Capability Considerations
Chapter 28 covers static theories of failure, from the theories for ductile materials to
brittle materials. Charts for determining stress concentration factors for various
design geometries are provided. In contrast, Chap. 29 covers dynamic theories of
failure, including the determination of endurance limits. For various design factors,
such as surface roughness, size, loading, temperature, and a host of miscellaneous
factors, the Marin equation is used to modify the endurance limit determined from
experiment.Alternating and fluctuating loading are considered, including combined
loading considerations.
Machine elements in compression must be analyzed to protect against buckling
or sudden collapse. Chapter 30 covers all aspects of compression loading of beams
and columns, from Euler’s formulas to complex beam–column analysis.
Chapter 31 covers mechanical vibration, from the forced vibration of damped
single-degree-of-freedom systems to multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Torsional
vibration and vibration isolation are presented.
Part 8: Performance of Engineering Materials
This section contains four chapters focused on the decisions associated with the
selection of materials for the critical parts in a design. Chapter 32 is a summary of
the science of material behavior, including the procedures used to determine various
material properties. It is one of the longer chapters in the Handbook. Chapter 33
focuses on the properties and engineering considerations of the most common material
in machines—steel.Whatever manufacturing is process used, everything needed
in designing with steel is provided.
Once in service, machine elements are subject to constant wear and the adverse
effects of corrosion. Chapters 34 and 35, respectively, cover the important aspects of
wear and corrosion. It would seem a shame to spend so much time on the other
aspects of design only to be blindsided by these two factors. Corrosion, especially
galvanic, is insidious and only careful selection of mating materials will avoid disaster.
Chapter 35 contains a listing from “A” for acetone to “W” for water relative to
their adverse reaction to other chemicals.
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN 1.7
EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL DESIGN
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Part 9: Classical Stress and Deformation Analysis
This last section in the Third Edition provides the mechanical design engineer with
the fundamental formulas for stress (Chap. 36) and deflection of beams (Chap. 37).
This section also includes the stress and deformation of special geometries, such as
curved beams and rings (Chap. 38), and the stress and deformation of pressurized
cylinders (Chap. 39), which are developed as a result of internal pressure or from the
effects of a press or shrink fit.
Appendix
As indicated earlier, one of the chapters included in the First and Second Editions,
“Sections and Shapes—Tabular Data,” has been provided in this Third Edition as an
Appendix. Here are found the properties of common cross-sectional areas used in
various mechanical elements, particularly beams, and the properties of standard
structural shapes, such as rectangular tubing, channels, angles, and variations on the
I-beam.

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition   الثلاثاء 15 مايو 2012, 10:40 am

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الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition   الثلاثاء 15 مايو 2012, 7:53 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition   الأربعاء 10 أكتوبر 2012, 7:15 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition   الأربعاء 10 أكتوبر 2012, 7:38 pm

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كتاب Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd Edition

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