كتاب Advances In Industrial And Hazardous Wastes Treatment Series
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Advances In Industrial And Hazardous Wastes Treatment Series

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Advances In Industrial And Hazardous Wastes Treatment Series   الجمعة 06 أبريل 2012, 1:31 pm




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كتاب


Advances In Industrial And Hazardous Wastes Treatment Series


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Chapter 1 Waste Minimization and Cleaner Production ............................................................ 1
Nazih K. Shammas and Lawrence K. Wang
Chapter 2 Waste Treatment in the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Industry.............................. 37
Gupta Sudhir Kumar, Debolina Basu, Yung-Tse Hung, and
Lawrence K. Wang
Chapter 3 Treatment of Nonferrous Metal Manufacturing Wastes .......................................... 71
Nazih K. Shammas and Lawrence K. Wang
Chapter 4 Management, Minimization, and Recycling of Metal Casting Wastes .................. 151
An Deng, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang
Chapter 5 Waste Treatment in the Aluminum Forming Industry ........................................... 199
Lawrence K. Wang and Nazih K. Shammas
Chapter 6 Treatment of Nickel-Chromium Plating Wastes .................................................... 233
Lawrence K. Wang, Nazih K. Shammas, Donald B. Aulenbach,
and William A. Selke
Chapter 7 Waste Treatment and Management in the Coil Coating Industry .......................... 261
Lawrence K. Wang and Nazih K. Shammas
Chapter 8 Waste Treatment in the Porcelain Enameling Industry .......................................... 307
Lawrence K. Wang and Nazih K. Shammas
Chapter 9 Treatment of Metal Finishing Industry Wastes ...................................................... 345
Nazih K. Shammas and Lawrence K. Wang
vi Contents
Chapter 10 Removal of Heavy Metals from Soil ...................................................................... 381
Nazih K. Shammas
Chapter 11 Cleanup of Metal Finishing Brownfi eld Sites ........................................................ 433
1.1 Introduction and Background . . . 2
1.2 Good Housekeeping . . 4
1.2.1 Function of a Good Housekeeping Program . . 5
1.2.2 Creation of a Good Housekeeping Program . . 5
1.2.3 Good Housekeeping: What to Do . . 6
1.3 Strategy for Waste Reduction . . . 7
1.3.1 Phase I . . . 7
1.3.2 Phase II . . 7
1.3.3 Phase III . . 8
1.4 Planning for Waste Reduction . . . 9
1.5 Audit Review . . . 12
1.5.1 Raw Materials and Utilities . . 12
1.5.2 Processes and Integrated Source Control . . . 12
1.5.3 End-of-Pipe Emission Control Systems . 13
1.5.4 Final Emissions and Discharges . . 13
1.5.5 Storage and Handling . .
14
1.6 Cleaner Production . .
14
1.6.1 Barriers to Cleaner Production . . . 14
1.6.2 Program as a Response to Barriers 16
1.6.3 Goals for Cleaner Production Programs 16
1.7 Metal Finishing . 17
1.7.1 Industry Profi le . . .
17
1.7.2 Effective BMPs . . . 17
1.7.3 Waste Minimization in Electroplating . . 18
1.8 Primary Metals . 19
1.8.1 Industry Profi le . . .
19
1.8.2 Effective BMPs . . . 20
1.9 Case Studies . . . 21
1.9.1 Recycling Zinc in Viscose Rayon Plants by Two-Stage Precipitation . . 21
1.9.1.1 The Signifi cance 21
1.9.1.2 The New Process . . .
21
1.9.1.3 The Economics . 22
1.9.1.4 Areas of Application 22
1.9.2 Pollution Abatement in a Copper Wire Mill . 22
1.9.2.1 The Signifi cance 22
1.9.2.2 The New Process . . .
23
2 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
1.9.2.3 The Economics . 25
1.9.2.4 Areas of Application 25
1.9.3 Gas-Phase Heat Treatment of Metals . . 25
1.9.3.1 Cleaner Production . .
25
1.9.3.2 Advantages 26
1.9.3.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
26
1.9.4 New Technology: Galvanizing of Steel . 26
1.9.4.1 Cleaner Production . .
27
1.9.4.2 Advantages 27
1.9.4.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
28
1.9.5 Waste Reduction in Electroplating 28
1.9.5.1 Cleaner Production . .
28
1.9.5.2 Advantages 28
1.9.6 Waste Reduction in Steelwork Painting .
28
1.9.6.1 Cleaner Production . .
29
1.9.6.2 Advantages 30
1.9.6.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
30
1.9.7 Recovery of Copper from Printed Circuit Board Etchant . . . 30
1.9.7.1 Cleaner Production . .
31
1.9.7.2 Advantages 32
1.9.7.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
32
1.9.8 Chrome Recovery and Recycling in the Leather Industry . . 32
1.9.8.1 Cleaner Production . .
32
1.9.8.2 Advantages 33
1.9.8.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
33
1.9.9 Minimization of Organic Solvents in Degreasing and Painting of Metals . . 33
1.9.9.1 Cleaner Production . .
34
1.9.9.2 Advantages 35
1.9.9.3 Economic Benefi ts . .
35
References . . 35
2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Industrial Processes in the Iron and Steel Industry . 38
2.3 Coke Making . . . 39
2.3.1 Process Description 39
2.3.2 Sources of Process Wastes . . . 42
2.3.2.1 Emissions . 42
2.3.2.2 Effl uents . . 43
2.3.2.3 Hazardous Wastes . . 43
2.3.3 Treatment Techniques . . 44
2.4 Ironmaking 44
2.4.1 Process Description 44
2.4.2 Sources of Process Waste .
. . 46
2.4.2.1 Emissions . 46
2.4.2.2 Effl uents . . 48
2.4.2.3 Byproducts 48
2.4.3 Treatment Techniques . .
49
2.5 Steel Making . . . 50
2.5.1 Basic Oxygen Furnace Process . . . 50
2.5.1.1 Process Description .
50
2.5.1.2 Sources of Process Waste . 50
2.5.1.3 Treatment Techniques . .
. 52
2.5.2 Electric Arc Furnace . .
. 53
2.5.2.1 Process Description .
53
2.5.2.2 Sources of Process Waste . 55
2.5.2.3 Treatment Techniques . .
. 56
2.6 Refi ning and Casting .
57
2.6.1 Process Description 57
2.6.2 Sources of Process Waste .
. . 58
2.6.2.1 Emissions . 58
2.6.2.2 Effl uent . . . 59
2.6.2.3 Byproducts 59
2.6.3 Treatment Techniques . . 59
2.7 Forming and Finishing . .
. 60
2.7.1 Process Overview . 60
38 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
2.7.2 Sources of Process Waste .
. . 61
2.7.2.1 Emissions . 61
2.7.2.2 Effl uents . . 61
2.7.2.3 Byproducts 64
2.7.2.4 Hazardous Wastes . . 64
2.7.3 Treatment Techniques . .
64
2.8 Pollution Prevention Measures . 65
2.8.1 High-Rate Recycle . 66
2.8.2 Countercurrent Cascade Rinsing . . 66
2.8.3 Acid Reuse, Recycle, and Recovery Systems 67
2.8.4 Extension of Process Solution Life 67
2.9 Process Modifi cations 68
2.9.1 Effl uent-Free Pickling Process with Fluid Bed Hydrochloric
Acid Regeneration . 68
2.9.2 Nitric-Acid-Free Pickling . . . 68
2.9.3 Effl uent-Free Exhaust Cleaning . . . 68
2.9.4 Elimination of Coke with Cokeless Technologies . 68
2.9.5 Reducing Coke Oven Emissions . . 69
References . . 70
3.1 Industry Description .
72
3.2 Nonferrous Metal Processing Industry . . . 74
3.2.1 Aluminum . . . 74
3.2.1.1 Industry Size and Geographic Distribution . . . 74
3.2.1.2 Product Characterization . 74
3.2.1.3 Industrial Process Description . 76
3.2.1.4 Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs . . . 79
3.2.2 Copper . . 81
3.2.2.1 Industry Size and Geographic Distribution . . . 81
3.2.2.2 Product Characterization . 81
3.2.2.3 Industrial Process Description . 82
3.2.2.4 Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs . . . 85
3.2.3 Lead 86
3.2.3.1 Industry Size and Geographic Distribution . . . 86
3.2.3.2 Product Characterization . 87
3.2.3.3 Industrial Process Description . 87
3.2.3.4 Raw Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs . . . 89
3.2.4 Zinc 91
3.2.4.1 Industry Size and Geographic Distribution . . . 91
3.2.4.2 Product Characterization . 91
3.2.4.3 Industrial Process Description . 91
3.2.4.4 Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs . . . 94
3.2.5 Columbium and Tantalum .
. . 96
3.2.6 Silver . . . 96
3.2.7 Tungsten . 96
3.2.8 Beryllium 96
3.2.9 Selenium 96
3.3 Wastewater Characterization . . 96
3.3.1 Primary Aluminum 97
3.3.2 Secondary Aluminum . .
99
3.3.3 Primary Columbium and Tantalum . . . 101
3.3.4 Primary Copper . . 101
3.3.5 Secondary Copper 104
3.3.6 Primary Lead 109
3.3.7 Secondary Lead . . 109
72 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
3.3.8 Secondary Silver . 110
3.3.9 Primary Tungsten . 110
3.3.10 Primary Zinc and Cadmium 115
3.4 Pollutant Removability and Treatment . . 119
3.5 Management of Chemicals in the Wastestream . . . 119
3.5.1 Chemical Release and Transfer Profi le 135
3.5.2 Summary of the Toxicity of Top Chemicals 135
3.5.2.1 Chlorine . 144
3.5.2.2 Copper . . 144
3.5.2.3 Hydrochloric Acid . 144
3.5.2.4 Lead 144
3.5.2.5 Zinc and Zinc Compounds .
. . 145
3.5.3 Comparison of Toxic Release Inventory between Industries 145
3.5.4 Pollution Prevention Opportunities . . . 145
3.5.4.1 Process Equipment Modifi cation . . 147
3.5.4.2 Raw Materials Substitution or Elimination . . 147
3.5.4.3 Precious Metals Recovery .
. . 147
3.5.5 Important Pollution Prevention Case Studies . . . 147
3.5.5.1 The Use of Electric Induction to Replace Fossil
Fuel Combustion . . 148
3.5.5.2 Processing Nonferrous Metal Hydroxide Sludge Wastes 148
References . 149
4.1 Industry Description 152
4.1.1 Casting Flow 153
4.1.1.1 Overview 153
4.1.1.2 Core Making . 153
4.1.1.3 Molding . 154
4.1.1.4 Melting and Pouring 155
4.1.1.5 Casting Cleaning and Inspection . . 156
4.1.1.6 Reclamation of Molds and Cores . . 157
4.1.2 Casting Processes . 157
4.1.2.1 Sand Casting . . 157
4.1.2.2 Shell Casting . 157
4.1.2.3 Investment Casting .
157
4.1.2.4 Die Casting . . . 157
4.1.2.5 Permanent Mold Casting 158
4.1.2.6 Centrifugal Casting 158
4.1.3 Sand Casting Systems .
158
4.1.3.1 Green Sand System 158
4.1.3.2 Chemically Bonded Sand Systems . 159
4.1.4 Casting Metals . . .
161
4.1.4.1 Iron Castings . 161
4.1.4.2 Steel Castings . 162
4.1.4.3 Aluminum Castings 162
4.1.4.4 Copper Castings . . .
162
4.2 Characterization of Wastes . . . 162
4.2.1 General . 162
4.2.2 Air Emission 163
4.2.2.1 Origin . . . 163
4.2.2.2 Characterization . . .
163
4.2.3 Wastewater . . 163
4.2.3.1 Origin . . . 163
4.2.3.2 Characterization . . .
164
4.2.4 Spent Foundry Sand . . .
164
4.2.4.1 Origin . . . 164
4.2.4.2 Physical Properties .
165
152 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
4.2.4.3 Chemical Compositions .
166
4.2.4.4 Trace Element Characterization . . . 166
4.2.4.5 Mechanical Properties .
. 167
4.2.5 Baghouse Dust . . . 168
4.2.5.1 Origin . . . 168
4.2.5.2 Physical Properties .
168
4.2.5.3 Chemical Composition . .
168
4.2.6 Furnace Slag 168
4.2.6.1 Origin . . . 168
4.2.6.2 Physical Properties .
170
4.2.6.3 Chemical Compositions .
171
4.2.6.4 Mechanical Properties .
. 174
4.2.6.5 Thermal Properties .
175
4.3 Source Reduction . . 175
4.3.1 Chemical Substitution or Minimization . . . 175
4.3.2 In-Plant Reclamation . . 176
4.3.3 Waste Segregation 177
4.3.4 Process Modifi cations to Reduce Emission . 177
4.4 Solid Wastes Reuse Technologies . . 178
4.4.1 General . 178
4.4.2 Reuse Evaluation Framework . . . 178
4.4.2.1 Technical Implementability . . 178
4.4.2.2 Environmental Issues . .
. 180
4.4.3 Reuse in Civil Engineering . 180
4.4.3.1 Asphalt Concrete . .
181
4.4.3.2 Portland Cement Concrete .
. . 183
4.4.3.3 Portland Cement . . .
186
4.4.3.4 Embankment or Fill Material . 187
4.4.3.5 Flowable Fill . . 189
4.4.3.6 Landfi ll Liner, Cover, and Hydraulic Barrier . 190
4.4.4 Agricultural Applications . . 191
4.4.4.1 Topsoil . . 191
4.4.4.2 Growing Amendments . .
192
4.4.5 General Processes 192
4.4.5.1 Crushing, Screening, and Storage . 192
4.4.5.2 Design and Construction 192
4.4.6 Unresolved Issues . 193
4.5 Barriers to Solid Waste Reuse . 193
4.5.1 Education . . . 193
4.5.2 Environmental Regulation .
. 193
4.5.3 Guidelines, Procedures, and Specifi cations . 194
4.5.4 Economics . . 194
4.5.5 Market Potential . .
194
References . 195
5.1 Industry and Process Description . . 200
5.1.1 Casting . 200
5.1.1.1 Direct Chill Casting 200
5.1.1.2 Continuous Casting 201
5.1.1.3 Stationary Casting .
201
5.1.2 Rolling . 201
5.1.3 Extrusion . . . 201
5.1.4 Forging . 202
5.1.5 Drawing 202
5.1.6 Heat Treatment . . .
203
5.1.7 Surface Treatment 203
5.2 Aluminum Forming Industry Subcategory Description . 203
5.2.1 Rolling with Neat Oils .
205
5.2.2 Rolling with Emulsions 206
5.2.3 Extrusion . . . 206
5.2.4 Forging . 206
5.2.5 Drawing with Neat Oils 206
5.2.6 Drawing with Emulsions or Soaps 206
5.3 Aluminum Forming Industry Waste Characterization . . 206
5.3.1 Direct Chill Casting . . . 206
5.3.2 Rolling with Emulsions 207
5.3.3 Extrusion . . . 207
5.3.4 Forging . 207
5.3.5 Drawing with Emulsions or Soaps 209
5.3.6 Heat Treatment . . .
209
5.3.7 Etch or Cleaning . 216
5.4 Plant-Specifi c Description of Case Histories . 216
5.4.1 Plant A: Case History .
216
5.4.2 Plant B: Case History .
. 218
5.4.3 U.S. EPA Data on Full-Scale Treatment of Aluminum
Forming Wastewaters . 218
5.5 Pollutant Removability .
. 221
5.6 Treatment Technology Costs . . 222
5.7 Aluminum Forming Industrial Effl uent Limitations . . . 223
5.8 Technical Terminologies of Aluminum Forming Operations
and Pollution Control . . .
224
References . 226
6.1 Introduction . . . 234
6.2 The Nickel-Chromium Plating Process . 234
6.2.1 Nickel Plating 234
6.2.2 Chromium Plating . 235
6.3 Sources of Pollution 235
6.3.1 Environmental Impact of Nickel . . 236
6.3.2 Environmental Impact of Chromium . . 236
6.4 Waste Minimization 237
6.4.1 Assessment of Hazardous Waste . . 237
6.4.2 Improved Procedures and Segregation of Wastes . 237
6.4.3 Material Substitution .
. . 238
6.4.4 Extending Process Bath Life . 238
6.4.5 Dragout Reduction 238
6.4.6 Reactive Rinses . . .
239
6.5 Material Recovery and Recycling . . 239
6.5.1 Dragout Recovery . 239
6.5.2 Evaporative Recovery . .
240
6.5.3 Reverse Osmosis . . 240
6.5.4 Ion Exchange . 241
6.5.5 Electrodialysis 241
6.5.6 Electrolytic Recovery .
. 242
6.5.7 Deionized Water . . 242
6.6 Chemical Treatment 242
6.6.1 Neutralization 242
6.6.2 Hexavalent Chromium Reduction . 243
6.6.3 pH Adjustment and Hydroxide Precipitation 245
6.6.4 Reduction and Flotation Combination . 247
6.7 Conventional Reduction–Precipitation System 248
6.8 Modifi ed Reduction–Flotation Wastewater Treatment System . . . 249
6.9 Innovative Flotation–Filtration Wastewater Treatment Systems . . 251
6.9.1 Flotation–Filtration System Using Conventional Chemicals 251
6.9.2 Flotation–Filtration System Using Innovative Chemicals . . 251
6.9.3 Flotation–Filtration Systems . 252
6.10 Summary . 255
References . 25
7.1 General Description of Coil Coating Industry and Operations . . . 262
7.2 Cleaning Operation of Coil Coating 263
7.2.1 Mild Alkaline Cleaning 263
7.2.2 Strong Alkaline Cleaning .
. 264
7.2.3 Acid Cleaning . . . 264
7.2.4 Special Cleaning . 264
7.3 Conversion Coating Process of Coil Coating . 264
7.3.1 Chromate Conversion Coatings . . 265
7.3.2 Phosphate Conversion Coatings . . 265
7.3.3 Complex Oxide Conversion Coating . . 266
7.3.4 No-Rinse Conversion Coatings . . 266
7.4 Painting Operation of Coil Coating 267
7.5 Subcategories of the Coil Coating Industry . . 267
7.5.1 General Description of Subcategorization . . 267
7.5.2 Coil Coating on Steel Subcategory . . . 268
7.5.3 Coil Coating on Zinc Coated Steel (Galvanized Steel) Subcategory . 268
7.5.4 Coil Coating on Aluminum Subcategory . . 269
7.6 Wastewater Characterization of the Coil Coating Industry . . 269
7.6.1 Effl uent Characteristics of Coil Coating on Steel Operation 269
7.6.2 Effl uent Characteristics of Coil Coating on Zinc Coated Steel
(Galvanized Steel) Operation 269
7.6.3 Effl uent Characteristics of Coil Coating on Aluminum Operation . . . 277
7.7 Plant-Specifi c Effl uent Characterization Data 278
7.7.1 Plant A: Coating Cold Rolled Steel and Galvanized Steel . 279
7.7.2 Plant B: Coating Both Cold Rolled Steel and Galvanized Steel . 279
7.7.3 Plant C: Coating Aluminum and Other Metals . . 279
7.8 Coil Coating Effl uent Treatment Technologies 280
7.8.1 Ion Exchange 281
7.8.2 Electrochemical Chromium Regeneration . . 282
7.8.3 Oil Skimming . . . 282
7.8.4 Chromium Reduction and Chemical Precipitation . . . 282
7.8.5 Cyanide Destruction . . 283
7.8.6 Oil–Water Separation, Biological Treatment, Powdered Activated
Carbon Adsorption, and Clarifi cation . 283
262 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
7.8.7 Granular Bed Filtration and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration . . 284
7.8.8 Membrane Processes . .
286
7.8.9 Other Water–Solids Separation Technologies . . . 286
7.8.10 Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Case History: Steel Subcategory . . 289
7.8.11 Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Case History: Galvanized Subcategory . 291
7.8.12 Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Case History: Aluminum Subcategory . 292
7.9 Wastewater Treatment Levels versus Costs . . 293
7.9.1 BPT Level Treatment . .
293
7.9.1.1 Suggested BPT 293
7.9.1.2 System Component of the Suggested BPT . . . 293
7.9.1.3 Unit Cost of the Suggested BPT . . . 294
7.9.2 BAT Level of Treatment .
. . 294
7.9.2.1 Suggested BAT 294
7.9.2.2 System Components of the Suggested BAT . . 294
7.9.2.3 Unit Cost of the Suggested BAT . . 294
7.10 Multimedia Waste Management in the Coil Coating Industry 294
7.10.1 Air Pollution Control .
. 294
7.10.2 Water Pollution Control 295
7.10.3 Solid and Hazardous Wastes Management and Disposal . . 296
7.10.4 Waste Minimization and Cleaner Production Alternatives
for Roll and Coil Coating . . .
296
7.11 Coil Coating Industry Liquid Effl uent Limitations, Performance
Standards, and Pretreatment Standards . 297
7.11.1 Effl uent Limitations, Performance Standards, and Pretreatment
Standards of the Steel Basis Material Subcategory . . . 297
7.11.2 Effl uent Limitations and Performance Standards of the Galvanized
Basis Material Subcategory .
298
7.11.3 Effl uent Limitations and Performance Standards of the Aluminum
Basis Material Subcategory .
300
7.11.4 Effl uent Limitations, Performance Standards, and Pretreatment
Standards of Canmaking Subcategory 302
7.12 Technical Terminologies of Coil Coating Operations and Pollution Control . . 304
References . 306
8.1 Industry Description 308
8.1.1 Historical Cultural Development . 308
8.1.2 Industrial Technology Development . . 308
8.2 Porcelain Enameling Process Steps 309
8.2.1 Enamel Slip Preparation . . . 309
8.2.2 Base Material Surface Preparation . . . 309
8.2.3 Enamel Application and Firing . . 309
8.3 Subcategory Descriptions of the Porcelain Enameling Industry . . 310
8.3.1 Porcelain Enameling on Steel Subcategory . 310
8.3.2 Porcelain Enameling on Cast Iron Subcategory . 311
8.3.3 Porcelain Enameling on Aluminum Subcategory 311
8.3.4 Porcelain Enameling on Copper Subcategory . . . 312
8.3.5 Porcelain Enameling on Continuous Strip Subdivision 312
8.4 Wastewater Characterization of the Porcelain Enameling Industry 312
8.4.1 Wastewater from the Porcelain Enameling on Steel Subcategory 313
8.4.2 Wastewater from the Porcelain Enameling on Cast Iron Subcategory 314
8.4.3 Wastewater from the Porcelain Enameling on Aluminum Subcategory . . . 314
8.4.4 Wastewater from the Porcelain Enameling on Copper Subcategory . . 314
8.5 Specifi c Descriptions of Porcelain Enameling Industrial Plants . . 318
8.5.1 Industrial Plants of Porcelain Enameling on Steel Subcategory . 323
8.5.1.1 Plant 40053 . . . 323
8.5.1.2 Plant 41062 . . . 323
8.5.1.3 Plant 36030 . . . 323
8.5.2 Industrial Plants of the Porcelain Enameling on Aluminum Subcategory . 324
8.5.2.1 Plant 11045 . . . 324
8.5.2.2 Plant 47051 . . . 324
8.5.2.3 Plant 33077 . . . 324
8.5.3 Industrial Plants of the Porcelain Enameling on Cast Iron Subcategory . . . 326
8.5.3.1 Plant 15712 . . . 326
8.5.3.2 Plant 40053 . . . 326
8.5.4 Industrial Plants of the Porcelain Enameling on Copper Subcategory 326
8.6 Pollutant Removability of Porcelain Enameling Industry Wastewater . . 329
8.6.1 Equalization and Neutralization . 329
8.6.2 Clarifi cation by Sedimentation (Settling) or Flotation 330
8.6.3 Chemical Addition, Precipitation, Coagulation, and Flocculation . . . 331
308 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
8.6.4 Granular Bed Filtration, Granular Activated Carbon Filtration,
and Membrane Filtration . . .
331
8.6.5 Sludge Concentration and Dewatering 331
8.7 Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production in the Porcelain Enameling
Industry 331
8.8 Costs for Treatment of Porcelain Enameling Industrial Wastewaters . . 332
8.8.1 BPT Level Treatment . .
. 332
8.8.1.1 Suggested BPT for Treating Porcelain Enameling Industrial Wastes 332
8.8.1.2 Suggested BPT System Components for Treating Porcelain
Enameling Industrial Wastes . 332
8.8.1.3 BPT Unit Cost for Treating Porcelain Enameling Industrial Wastes 332
8.8.2 BAT Level Treatment . .
333
8.8.2.1 Suggested BAT for Treating Porcelain Enameling
Industrial Wastes . . 333
8.8.2.2 Suggested BAT System Components for Treating Porcelain
Enameling Industrial Wastes . 333
8.8.2.3 BAT Unit Cost for Treating Porcelain Enameling Industrial Wastes . 333
8.9 Porcelain Enameling Point Source Discharge Effl uent Limitations,
Performance Standards, and Pretreatment Standards . . . 333
8.9.1 U.S. Environmental Regulations for the Steel Basis Material Subcategory 333
8.9.2 U.S. Environmental Regulations for the Cast Iron Basis
Material Subcategory . . 334
8.9.3 U.S. Environmental Regulations for the Aluminum Basis
Material Subcategory . . 335
8.9.4 U.S. Environmental Regulations for the Copper Basis Material Subcategory 337
8.10 Technical Terminologies Used in the Porcelain Enameling Industry . . . 342
References . 344
9.1 Industry Description 346
9.1.1 General Description . .
. 346
9.1.2 Subcategory Descriptions .
. 350
9.2 Wastewater Characterization . 350
9.2.1 “Common Metals” Subcategory . 352
9.2.2 “Precious Metals” Subcategory . . 352
9.2.3 “Complexed Metals” Subcategory 352
9.2.4 “Cyanide” Subcategory 352
9.2.5 “Hexavalent Chromium” Subcategory . 356
9.2.6 “Oils” Subcategory . . .
356
9.2.7 “Solvent” Subcategory .
356
9.3 Source Reduction . . 359
9.3.1 Chemical Substitution .
359
9.3.2 Waste Segregation 360
9.3.3 Process Modifi cations to Reduce Drag-Out Loss 361
9.3.4 Waste Reduction Costs and Benefi ts . . 365
9.4 Pollutant Removabilty . .
. 366
9.4.1 Common Metals . . 366
9.4.2 Precious Metals . . 369
9.4.3 Complexed Metal Wastes . . . 370
9.4.4 Hexavalent Chromium .
370
9.4.5 Cyanide 370
9.4.6 Oils 370
9.4.7 Solvents 371
9.5 Treatment Technologies .
371
9.5.1 Neutralization . . .
371
9.5.2 Cyanide-Containing Wastes 371
9.5.3 Chromium-Containing Wastes . . 374
9.5.4 Arsenic- and Selenium-Containing Wastes . 374
9.5.5 Other Metals Wastes . .
376
9.6 Costs 377
9.6.1 Typical Treatment Options . . 377
9.6.2 Costs . . . 377
References . 379
10.1 Introduction . . . 382
10.2 Overview of Metals and Their Compounds . . 383
10.2.1 Overview of Physical Characteristics and Mineral Origins . . . 383
10.2.2 Overview of Behavior of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg . . . 383
10.3 Description of Superfund Soils Contaminated with Metals . . 385
10.4 Soil Cleanup Goals and Technologies for Remediation . 385
10.5 Containment . . 388
10.5.1 Process Description . .
388
10.5.2 Site Requirements . . .
389
10.5.3 Applicability . . . 390
10.5.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 390
10.5.5 SITE Program Demonstration Projects . . . 391
10.6 Solidifi cation–Stabilization Technologies 391
10.6.1 Process Description . .
392
10.6.2 Site Requirements . . .
393
10.6.3 Applicability . . .
393
10.6.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 395
10.6.5 SITE Program Demonstration Projects . . . 397
10.6.6 Cost of S/S . 398
10.7 Vitrifi cation . . .
398
10.7.1 Process Description . .
399
10.7.2 Site Requirements . . .
399
10.7.3 Applicability . . .
400
10.7.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 401
10.7.5 SITE Program Demonstration Projects . . . 401
10.8 Soil Washing . . 402
10.8.1 Process Description . .
402
10.8.2 Site Requirements . . .
404
10.8.3 Applicability . . .
404
10.8.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 405
10.8.5 SITE Demonstrations and Emerging Technologies Program Projects . . . 405
10.9 Soil Flushing . . 405
10.9.1 Process Description . .
406
10.9.2 Site Requirements . . . 406
10.9.3 Applicability . . .
406
10.9.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 407
10.9.5 SITE Demonstration and Emerging Technologies Program Projects 407
382 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
10.10 Pyrometallurgy 408
10.10.1 Process Description .
. 408
10.10.2 Site Requirements . .
. 408
10.10.3 Applicability . . .
409
10.10.4 Performance and BDAT Status . 409
10.10.5 SITE Demonstration and Emerging Technologies
Program Projects 410
10.11 Electrokinetics . 410
10.11.1 Process Description .
. 410
10.11.2 Site Requirements . .
. 413
10.11.3 Applicability and Demonstration Projects 413
10.11.4 Performance and Cost 416
10.11.5 Summary of Electrokinetic Remediation . 417
10.12 Phytoremediation . .
418
10.12.1 Process Description .
. 419
10.12.2 Applicability . . .
422
10.12.3 Performance and Cost 422
10.12.4 Summary of Phytoremediation Technology . . . 424
10.13 Use of Treatment Trains . 425
10.14 Cost Ranges of Remedial Technologies . 425
References . 427
11.1 Introduction . . . 434
11.1.1 Background 434
11.1.2 Metals and Metalloids 435
11.1.3 Purpose . . . 436
11.2 Industrial Processes and Contaminants at Metal Finishing Sites . . 437
11.2.1 Surface Preparation Operations 437
11.2.2 Metal Finishing Operations 437
11.2.2.1 Anodizing Operations 438
11.2.2.2 Chemical Conversion Coating . . 439
11.2.2.3 Electroplating . . 439
11.2.2.4 Electroless and Immersion Plating . . 439
11.2.2.5 Painting . . . 440
11.2.2.6 Other Metal Finishing Techniques . . 440
11.2.3 Auxiliary Activity Areas and Potential Contaminants . . . 440
11.2.3.1 Wastewater Treatment 440
11.2.3.2 Sunken Wastewater Treatment Tank . 440
11.2.3.3 Chemical Storage Area .
. . 440
11.2.3.4 Disposal Area . . 441
11.2.3.5 Other Considerations .
441
11.3 Site Assessment 441
11.3.1 The Central Role of the State Agencies . . . 442
11.3.1.1 State Voluntary Cleanup Programs . . 442
11.3.1.2 Levels of Contaminant Screening and Cleanup 442
11.3.2 Performing a Phase I Site Assessment: Obtaining Facility
Background Information from Existing Data . . 442
11.3.2.1 Facility Records . 444
11.3.2.2 Other Sources of Recorded Information . . 444
11.3.2.3 Identifying Migration Pathways and Potentially Exposed
Populations 445
11.3.3 Gathering Topographic Information . 445
11.3.4 Gathering Soil and Subsurface Information . . . 446
11.3.5 Gathering Groundwater Information . 446
11.3.5.1 Identifying Potential Environmental and Human
Health Concerns 446
11.3.5.2 Community Involvement . . 447
11.3.5.3 Conducting a Site Visit .
. . 448
11.3.5.4 Conducting Interviews 448
11.3.5.5 Developing a Report .
448
434 Waste Treatment in the Metal Manufacturing, Forming, Coating, and Finishing
Industries
11.3.6 The Triad Approach: Streamlining Site Investigations and
Cleanup Decisions . . . 449
11.3.7 Performing a Phase II Site Assessment: Sampling the Site . . . 450
11.3.7.1 Setting Data Quality Objectives 450
11.3.7.2 Screening Levels 453
11.3.7.3 Environmental Sampling and Data Analysis . . 454
11.3.7.4 Levels of Sampling and Analysis . . . 454
11.3.8 Increasing the Certainty of Sampling Results . . 454
11.3.9 Site Assessment Technologies . . 455
11.3.9.1 Field versus Laboratory Analysis . . . 455
11.3.9.2 Sample Collection and Analysis Technologies . 455
11.3.10 Additional Considerations for Assessing Metal Finishing Sites 455
11.3.10.1 Where to Sample 456
11.3.10.2 How Many Samples to Collect . 460
11.3.10.3 What Types of Analysis to Perform . 460
11.3.11 General Sampling Costs .
. 461
11.3.11.1 Soil Collection Costs .
461
11.3.11.2 Groundwater Sampling Costs . . 461
11.3.11.3 Surface Water and Sediment Sampling Costs . . 461
11.3.11.4 Sample Analysis Costs .
. . 461
11.4 Site Cleanup . . 462
11.4.1 Developing a Cleanup 462
11.4.1.1 Institutional Controls .
463
11.4.1.2 Containment Technologies 463
11.4.1.3 Types of Cleanup Technologies . 464
11.4.2 Keys to Technology Selection and Acceptance . 464
11.4.3 Summary of Technologies for Treating Metals/Metalloids
at Brownfi eld Sites . . . 466
11.4.4 Cleanup Technologies Options for Metal Finishing Sites . 467
11.4.5 Post-Construction Care 473
11.5 Conclusions . . . 473
Acronyms . . 474


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