كتاب Injection Molding Handbook
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 كتاب Injection Molding Handbook

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Injection Molding Handbook   الأربعاء 28 مارس 2012, 1:05 am

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Injection Molding Handbook

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Chapter The Complete Injection Molding Process
Introduction
Machine Characteristics
Molding Plastics
Molding Basics and Overview
People and Productivity ; Plastic Materials ;
Morphology and Performance ; Melt Flow and
Rheology ; Plasticating ; Screw Designs ;
Molds ; Processing ; Process Controls ;
Control Guides ; Art of Processing ; Fine
Tuning
Automatic ; Semiautomatic ; Manual ; Primary
; Secondary
Molding Operations
Purchasing and Handling Plastics
Processors
Training Programs
Processor Certifications
Plastics Machinery Industry
Summary
Captive ; Custom ; Proprietary
Chapter Injection Molding Machines
Introduction
Reciprocating (Single-Stage) Screw Machines
Two-Stage Machines
Reciprocating vs. Two-Stage Machines
Other Machine Types
Machine Operating Systems
Hydraulic Operations
Injection Hydraulic Accumulator
Reservoirs ; Hydraulic Controls : Proportional
Valves ; Servovalves : Digital Hydraulic
Control : Hydraulic Fluids and Influence of
Heat ; Pumps ; Directional Valves ; Servo
and Proportional Valves
Electric Motors ; Adjustable-Speed Drive Motors
; Servo Drives ; Microtechnology Moldings
; Injection Molding: A Technology in Transition
to Electrical Power
Electrical Operation
Hybrid Operations
Clamping Systems
Clamping Pressures ; Hydraulic Clamps ;
Toggle Clamps ; Hydromechanical Clamps ;
Hydroelectric Clamps ; Comparison of Clamp
Designs ; Tie-bars ; Tie-barless Systems ;
Platen Systems
Barrel Borescoping ; Barrel and Feed Unit ;
Barrel Heaters ; Barrel Cooling ; Barrel Characteristics

Barrels
Screw Operations
Machine Sizes and Design Variations
Rebuilding and Repairs
Stripping, Polishing, and Plating ; Machine
Downsizing and Upsizing
Machine Lockout ; Machine Safety ; Identification
of Hazards ; Safety Built into the Machines
; Current and Former Installations ;
IMM Safety Checklist ; Safety Rules for Molding
Department ; American National Standard
; Safety Standards ; Plasticator Safety ;
Barrel-Cover Safety ; Plant Safety ; Safety
Information
Designing Facilities
Upgrading ; Clean Room ; Clean Machines

Noise Generation
Startup and Shutdown Operations
Molding Operation Training Program
Safety
First Stage: Running an IMM ; The Sequence in
a Cycle ; Second Stage: Parameter Setting and
Starting a Job
Factors to Consider ; Operating the Machine
; Final Stage: Optimizing Molding Production
; Specification Information, General
; Specification Information, Details ; Productivity
and People ; Training Information

Shear-Rate-Sensitive and -Insensitive Materials
Molding Guide
Guide to IMM Selection
Terminology
Chapter Plasticizing
Introduction
Plasticators
Plastics Melt Flow ; Barrel Temperature Override

Feed Section ; Transition Section ; Metering
Section
Screw Rotation ; Soak Phenomena ; Injection
Stroke ; Injection Pressure Required

Screw Design Basics ; Sequence of Operations
; Advantages of Screw Plasticizing
; Length-to-Diameter Ratios ; Compression
Ratios ; Rotation Speeds
Screw Sections
Elements of the Plasticating Processes
Screw Plasticizing
Processing Thermoplastics or Thermoset Plastics
Screw Actions
Mechanical Requirements ; Torque ;
Torque vs. Speed
Injection Rates
Back Pressures
Melt Performance
Melt Pumping
Melt Temperature
Temperature Sensitivity ; Temperature Controls
Required ; Barrel Heating ; Cooling

Melt Performance
Residence Time
Melt Cushions
Melt Shear Rate
Melt Displacement Rate
Shot Size
Screw-Barrel Bridging
Vented Barrels
Recovery Rate
Overview ; Basic Operations ; Barrel-
Venting Safety
Design Basics ; Design Performance ; Mixing
and Melting Devices ; Screw Barriers ;
Specialized Screw Designs ; Screw Tips ;
Influence of Screw Processing Plastics ; Melt
Quality ; Materials of Construction
Screw Designs
Screw Outputs
Influence of Screw and Barrel Wear on Output
Influence of the Material on Wear ; Screw
Wear ; Production Variations ; Screw Wear
Inspections ; Output Loss Due to Screw Wear
Patents Influence Screw Designs
Terminology
Molds to Products
Overview
Interrelation of Plastic, Process, and Product
; Molding Process Windows ; Cycle Times
; Molding Pressure Required ; Products

Basics of Melt Flow ; Mold Filling Hesitation
; Melt Cushioning ; Mold Filling Monitoring
; Sink Marks
Processing Plastics
Mold Descriptions
Mold Basics
Mold Optimization
Mold Types
Computer Systems
Molds For Thermosets ; Mold Classifications

Cold-Slug Well ; Melt Orientation ;
Fill Rates ; Melt Temperature ; Mold Temperature
; Packing Pressure ; Mold Geometry
; Flash Guide
Plastic Melt Behaviors
Cavity Melt Flow
Molding Variables vs. Performance
Shot-To-Shot Variation
Cavities
Cavity Melt Flow Analyses ; Cavity Melt Fountain
Flow
Machine Size ; Plasticizing Capacity ; Economics
; Cavity Draft ; Cavity Packing ;
Cavity Surface
Contact Area at Parting Line
Sprues ; Runner Systems ; Gates ; Gate
Summary
Correcting Mold Filling Imbalances in Geometrically Balanced
Runner Systems
Isolating Mold Variations in Multicavity Molds

Ejector Systems ; Ejector Pin Strength ;
Sprue Pullers ; Side Actions ; Angle Pins
; Cam Blocks ; Stripper-Plate Ejection
Actuation
; Sprue Bushing and Locating Ring
; Ring and Bar Ejection ; Top-and-Bottom
Ejection ; Inserts ; Side Guide Slides ;
Ejector Blades
Mold Venting
Molds for Thermoset Plastics
Mold Construction ; Cold-Runner Systems
; Injection-Compression Moldings
Overview ; Design Considerations ; Basic
Principles of Heat Flow ; Heat Transfer
by Heat Pipes ; Heat Balance of Halves ;
Mold Connection for Fluid ; Cooling Time ;
Cooling with Melt Pulses ; Flood Cooling ;
Spiral Cooling ; Cooling Rates ; Cooling
Temperatures ; Cooling Flow Meters
Mold Cooling
Undercuts
Mold Shrinkages and Tolerances
Ejection of Molded Products
Mold Release Agents
Mold Materials of Construction
Shrinkage vs. Cycle Time
Steels ; Heat Treating ; Requirements
to be Met by Mold Steel ; Aluminum ;
Beryllium-Copper ; Kirksite ; Brass
Etching Cavity Surfaces
Machining Safety
Moldmaker Directory
Mold Material Selection Software
Fabrication of Components
Hobbing ; Cast Cavities ; Electroforming
; Electric-Discharge Machining
Tooling
Polishing
SPI Finish Numbers ; Hand Benching ;
Direction of Benching ; Ultrasonic Tools ;
Textured Cavities ; Patterns of Different Textures
; Mold Steels ; Conditions Required
for Polishing
Nickel ; Chrome ; Nitriding and Carburizing
; Other Plating Treatments ; Coating
Treatments ; Heat Treatments
Overview ; Manual Cleaning ; Oven Cleaning
; Solvent Cleaning ; Triethylene Glycol
Cleaning ; Postcleaning ; Salt Bath
Cleaning ; Ultrasonic Solvent Cleaning ;
Fluidized-Bed Cleaning ; Vacuum Pyrolysis
Cleaning
Strength Requirements for Molds
Stress Level in Steel ; Pillar Supports ; Steel
and Size of Mold Base
Mold Filling ; Deflection of Mold Side Walls

Eyebolt Holes
Quick Mold Change
Mold Protection
Preengineered Molds
Standardized Mold Base Assemblies
Specialty Mold Components
Collapsible and Expandable Core Molds
Prototyping
Deformation of Mold
Automatic Systems ; Heavy Molds
Overview ; Stereolithography ; Rapid
Tooling
Introduction ; Industry Guide ; Purchase
Order ; Mold Design ; Production of Molds

Buying Molds
Mold Storage
Computer-Aided Mold and Product Design
Production Control Systems
Computer Monitoring of Information
Productivity and People
Value Analyses
Zero Defects
Terminology
Fundamentals of Designing Products
Overview
Molding Influences Product Performance
Design Optimization
Material Optimization
Material Characteristics
Behavior of Plastics
Molding Tolerances
Computer Analysis
Thermal Stresses ; Viscoelastic Behavior
Tolerances and Designs ; Tolerance Allowances
; Tolerances and Shrinkages ; Tolerances
and Warpages ; Thin-Wall Tolerances
; Micron Tolerances ; Tolerance Damage
; Full Indicator Movements (FIMs) ; Tolerance
Selection ; Tolerance Stack-Ups ;
Standard Tolerances
Tolerance Measurement and Quenching
Dimensional Properties
Dimensional Tolerances
Product Specifications ; Using Geometric Tolerancing

Design Features That Influence Performance
Plastics Memory
Residence Time
Computerized Knowledge-Based Engineering
Orientation
Accidental Orientation ; Orientation and
Chemical Properties ; Orientation and Mechanical
Properties ; Orientation and Optical
Properties ; Orientation Processing Characteristics
; Orientation and Cost
Molecular Orientation: Design of Integral Hinges
Interrelation of Material and Process with Design
Design Shapes
Shapes and Stiffness
Stress Relaxation
Predicting Performance
Choosing Materials and Design
Design Concept ; Engineering Considerations

Design Parameters ; Types of Plastics
Designing with Creep Data ; Allowable Working
Stress ; Creep Behavior Guidelines
Stapler ; Snap-Fits ; Springs
Design Considerations
Long-Term Behavior of Plastics: Creep
Design Examples
Design Approach Example
Design Accuracy
Risks and the Products
Acceptable Risks ; Acceptable Goals ; Acceptable
Packaging Risks ; Risk Assessments
; Fire Risks ; Risk Management ; Risk
Retention
Perfection
Cost Modeling
Innovative Designs
Protect Designs
Summary
Terminology
Molders’ Contributions
Molding Materials
Overview
Definition of Plastics ; Heat Profiles ; Costs
; Behavior of Plastics ; Checking Materials
Received
Neat Plastics
Polymer Synthesis and Compositions
Copolymers
Interpenetrating Networks
Compounds
Additives ; Fillers ; Reinforcements ;
Summary
Alloys and Blends
Thermoplastic and Thermoset Plastics
Thermoplastics ; Thermoset Plastics ;
Cross-Linking ; Cross-Linking Thermoplastics
; Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) ; Curing
; Heat Profiles
Liquid Crystal Plastics (LCPs)
Elastomers, Thermoplastic, and Thermoset
Thermoplastic Elastomers ; Thermoset Elastomers
; Natural Rubbers ; Rubber Elasticity
; Rubber Market
Commodity and Engineering Plastics
Injection Molding Thermoplastics and Thermosets
High Performance Reinforced Moldings
Injection Moldings ; Bulk Molding Compounds
(BMCs) ; Characterizations ; Directional
Properties
Newtonian Flow ; Non-Newtonian Flow
Viscosities
Viscoelasticities
Plastic Structures and Morphology
Chemical and Physical Characteristics ; Crystalline
and Amorphous Plastics ; Catalysts and
Metallocenes ; Plastic Green Strength
Average Molecular Weight ; Molecular Weight
Distribution ; Additives ; Molecular
Weight and Melt Flow ; Molecular Weight and
Aging
Flow ; Viscosity ; Viscoelasticity ; Intrinsic
Viscosity ; Shear Rate ; Laminar and
Nonlaminar Melt Flows ; Melt Flow Analyses
; Melt Flow Analysis Programs ; Analyzing
Melt Flow Results ; Melt Flow Defects ;
Hindering Melt Flow with Additives ; Melt
Fractures
Molecular Weight (MW)
Rheology and Melt Flow
Cavity Filling
Plastic Raw Materials
Plastic Advantages and Disadvantages
Plastic Properties and Characteristics
Weld Line Strengths and Materials
Material Selections
Colorants ; Concentrates ; Barrier Plastics

Melt Shear Behaviors
ASTM Standard Guide for Plastic Classifications
Thermal Properties and Processability
Melt Temperatures ; Glass Transition Temperatures
; Dimensional Stabilities ; Thermal
Conductivities and Thermal Insulation ;
Heat Capacities ; Thermal Diffusivities ;
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion ; Thermal
Stresses
Shrinkages
Drying
Material Handling
Annealing
Recycling
Recycled Plastic Definitions ; Recycled Plastic
Identified ; Recycled Plastic Properties
; Recycling Size Reductions ; Recycling
Mixed Plastics ; Integrated Recycling ; Recycling
Methods and Economic Evaluations ;
Recycling and Lifecycle Analysis ; Recycling
Commingled Plastics ; Recycling Automatically
Sorting Plastics ; Recycling and Common
Sense ; Recycling Limitations
Recycling Facts and Myths
Warehousing
Storage and Condensation ; Material Storage
; Silo Storage
Processing Different Plastics
Polyethylenes
Molding Conditions ; Materials ; Molding
Test Results
Molding Conditions
Molding Conditions ; Purging ; Shutdown
and Start-up ; Thermal and Rheological Properties
; Drying ; Mechanical Properties
; Chemical Resistance ; Weatherability ;
Color
Formulations ; Molding Conditions ; Screw
Design ; Material Handling Equipment ;
Processing Parameters ; Problem Solving ;
Splay
Molding Conditions ; Performance Parameters
; Design Parameters ; Molding Performance
Parameters ; Mold Release ; Close
Tolerance: Fast Cycles ; Recycling Plastics
Molding Variables and Cause-and-Effect Links
; Molding Variables and Property Responses
; Appearance Properties ; Warping ;
; Property Variation with Position Mold Geometry
; Summary
Drying ; Recycle and Virgin Proportions ;
Processing ; Hydrolysis ; Rheology ;
Heat Transfer ; Residual Stress ; Annealing

Process ; Hot- and Cold-Runner Molding ;
Material Stuffer
Polycarbonates
Injection Molding Thermosets
Energy Considerations
Summary
Terminology
Process Control
Process Control Basics
Developing Melt and Flow Control ; Inspection
; Computer Process Data Acquisition ;
Control Flow Diagrams ; Fishbone Diagram

Technology ; Fast Response Controls ;
Control Approaches ; Process Control Methods
; Production Monitoring ; On-Machine
Monitoring
Overview
Temperature Control of Barrel and Melt
Electronic Controls
Fuzzy Logic Control
Process Control Techniques
Process Control Approaches
What Are the Variables? ; Why Have Process
Control? ; Control of Which Parameters Can
Best Eliminate Variability? ; What Enables
Parameter Controllability? ; Where Does the
Process Controller Go? ; Basic Features a Process
Controller Should Have ; Applications
; Summary
Process Control Problems
Cavity Melt Flow Analyses
Problem ; Melt Viscosities versus Fill and Pack
; Test Methodology ; Analyzing Results
; Example Test ; Using Empirical Test Data
to Optimize Fill Rates ; Melt Vibrations during
Filling ; Stabilizing via Screw Return Time

Sensor Requirements ; Molding Parameters
; Display of Monitored Molding Parameters
Advantages

Functions ; Rotary and Linear Motion
Optimization via PVT ; PMT Concept
Designs
Types of Instruments
Adaptive Control: PVT and PMT Concepts
Controllers
Sensor Control Responses
Transducers
Linear Displacement Transducers ; Linear Velocity
Displacement Transducers ; Pressure
Transducers ; Transducer Calibrations ;
Transducer Environments
Transputer Controllers
Temperature Controllers
Temperature Variations ; Melt Temperature
Profiles ; Automatic Tuning ; Temperature
Sensors ; Fuzzy Logic Controls ; Fuzzy-PID
Controls
Temperature Timing and Sequencing
Pressure Controls
Pressure PID Controls
Screw Tips ; Cavity Fillings
PID Tuning: What It Means ; The Need for
Rate Control on High-speed Machines
Fuzzy-Pressure Controls
Injection Molding Holding Pressures
Process Control Fill and Pack
Process Control Parameter Variables
Injection Molding Boost Cutoff or Two-Stage Control
Injection Molding Controller Three-Stage Systems
Mold Cavity Pressure Variables
Programmed Molding
Adaptive Ram Programmers
Three-Stage Systems
Parting Line Controls ; Computer Microprocessor
Controls ; Computer Processing Control
Automation
Molding Thin Walls
Control System Reliabilities
Operations Optimized
Control Tradeoffs
Process Control Limitations and Troubleshooting
Control ; Tie-Bar Growth ; Tie-Bar Elongation
; Thermal Mold Growth ; Shot-to-
Shot Variation
Intelligent Communications ; Systematic Intelligent
Processing
Processing Rules
Processing and Patience
Processing Improvements
Control Advantages
Automatic Detections
Terminology
Plantwide Control and Management
Chapter Design Features That Influence Product Performance
Overview
Audits ; Computer Approaches ; Design
Feature That Influence Performance
Plastic Product Failures
Design Failure Theory
Basic Detractors and Constraints
Tolerance and Shrinkage ; Residual Stress ;
Stress Concentration ; Sink Mark
Design Concept
Terminology
Sharp Corners
Uniform Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness Tolerance
Flow Pattern
Parting Lines
Gate Size and Location
Taper or Draft Angle
Weld Lines
Vent, Trapped Air, and Ejector
Undercuts
Blind Holes
Bosses
Coring
Press Fits
Internal Plastic Threads
External Plastic Threads
Molded-In Inserts
Screws for Mechanical Assembly
Gears
Ribs
Geometric Structural Reinforcement
Snap Joints
Integral Hinges
Mold Action
Meld Lines
Chapter Computer Operations
Overview
Communication Benefits ; Computerized
Databases of Plastics ; CAD/CAM/CAE
Methods ; Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

Benefits of CAD/CAM/CAE for Mold Design
Productivity ; Quality ; Turnaround Time
; Resource Utilization
Mechanical Design ; Computer-Aided Engineering

Product Designers ; Mold Designers and
Moldmakers ; Injection Molders
Multisections ; Finite Element Techniques ;
Shrinkage and Warpage ; Benefit Appraisal
; Moldflow Basic Technology
Introduction ; Fundamentals ; Mold Cool
Analysis
Modeling Methods Applied to Part and Mold Design
Wire Frame Modeling ; Surface Modeling ;
Solids Modeling
Group Technology ; Finite Element Modeling
; Digitizing ; Layering ; Groups ;
Patterns ; Large-Scale Geometry Manipulation
; Local Coordinates or Construction
Planes ; Model and Drawing Modes and
Associativity ; Verification of Geometric Relationships
; Automatic Dimensioning and Automatic
Tolerance Analysis ; Online Calculation
Capabilities and Electronic Storage Areas

Illustration of Mold Design Process
The Manual (Paper) Method
The CAD/CAM/CAE Method
Online Databases
Basics in CAD/CAM/CAE Modeling
Mold Flow Analysis
Basic Melt Flow Analysis
Mold Cooling
Computer Capabilities for Part and Mold Design
The Database Concept ; Graphics Databases
; Defining the Library Database
Tolerances and Dimensional Controls
Computer Controllers
CAD/CAM/CAE and CIM
Numerical Control Process
Programmable Controller Safety Devices
Computer Optical Data Storage
Artificial Intelligence
Computers and People
Computer-Based Training
Myths and Facts
Capability and Training
Computer Software
Molding Simulation Programs
RAPRA Free Internet Search Engine
Software and Database Programs
Injection Moldings and Molds : Materials
; Shrinkage ; Materials and Designs ;
Design Products : Engineering ; Graphics
; Management : General Information ;
Training
Plastics, Toys, and Computer Limitations
Computers Not Designed for Home
Summary
Terminology
Chapter Auxiliary Equipment and Secondary Operations
Introduction
Energy Conservation ; Planning Ahead, Support
Systems
Hoppers ; Material Handling, Feeding, and
Blending ; Material Handling Methods :
Sensors
Bulk Density ; Basic Principles of Pneumatic
Conveying ; Air Movers ; Pneumatic Venturi
Conveying ; Powder Pumps ; Piping
; Hoppers ; Filters ; Bulk Storage
; Blenders ; Unloading Railcars and Tank
Trucks
Nonhygroscopic Plastics ; Hygroscopic Plastics
; Drying Overview ; Dryers
Overview ; Heat-Transfer Calculations ;
Requirements Vary with Materials ; Water Recovery
; General considerations ; Calculation
of the Cooling Load ; Determining Water
Loads
Overview
Materials Handling
Drying Plastics
Water Chilling and Recovery
Energy-Saving Heat Pump Chillers
Granulators
Safety ; Basics ; Hoppers ; Cutting
Chambers ; Cutting Chamber Assembly ;
Hard Face Welding ; Screen Chambers ;
Auger Granulators ; Granulating and Performance

Dewpoints ; Mold Surface Temperatures ;
Effect of Change in Air Properties ; Air Conditioning
and Desiccant Dehumidification ; Dehumidification
System
Controlled Motions ; People and PHE ;
Different Types ; Value in Use ; Detriments
: Robots Performance ; Safety Measures

Machining
Overview ; Plastic Characteristics ; Cutting
Guidelines
Adhesives ; Solvents ; Welding Techniques
; Welding Process Economic Guide
Abrasives ; Carbon Dioxide ; Cryogenic
Deflashing ; Brass ; Hot Salts ; Solvents
; Ultrasonics ; Vacuum Pyrolysis ; Coatings

Potential Preparation Problems ; Pretreatments
; Removing Mold Release Residues

Robot Terms
Joining and Assembling
Cleaning Tools
Finishing and Decorating
Terminology
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Troubleshooting Introduction
Definitions
Remote Controls
Troubleshooting Approaches
Shrinkages and Warpages
Weld Lines
Troubleshooting Guides
Flashes
Injection Structural Foams
Hot-Runners
Hot-Stamp Decorating
Paint-Lines
Granulator Rotors
Auxiliary Equipment
Screw Wear Guide
Plastic Material and Equipment Variables
Defects
Finding the Fault
Counterflow
Inspection Rollers ; Diameters ; Depths
; Concentricity and Straightness ; Hardness
; Finish and Coating Thickness ;
Screw Manufacturing Tolerances
Inside Diameters ; Straightness and Concentricity
; Barrel Hardness ; Barrel Specifications

Cleaning the Plasticator Screw ; Oil Changes
and Oil Leaks ; Checking Band Heaters,
Thermocouples, and Instruments ; Alignment,
Level, and Parallelism ; Hydraulic
Pneumatic, and Cooling-Water Systems ;
Hydraulic Hose
Keep the Shop Clean
Keep Spare Parts in Stock
Return on Investment
Maintenance
Hydraulic Fluid Maintenance Procedures ;
Problems and Solutions ; Downtime Maintenance
: Preventative Maintenance ; Services

Safety
Maintenance Software
Summary
Terminology
Testing, Inspection, and Quality Control
Testing
Design and Quality
Basic versus Complex Tests
Sampling
Acceptable Quality Level ; Sampling Plan
; Sampling Size
Orientation and Weld Lines ; Density and
Specific Gravity ; Morphology: Amorphous
and Crystalline Plastics ; Molecular Structures

Mechanical Test Equipment ; Tensile Test
; Deflection Temperature under Load ;
Creep Data
Characterizing Properties and Tests
Mechanical Properties
Electrical Tests
Thermal Properties
Chemical Properties
Chromatographic and Thermal Tests
Liquid Chromatography ; Gel Permeation
Chromatography : Gas Chromatography
; Ion Chromatography ; Thermoanalytical
Method ; Thermogravimetric Analysis
; Differential Scanning Calorimetry ;
Thermomechanical Analysis ; Dynamic Mechanical
Analysis ; Infrared Spectroscopy
: X-Ray Spectroscopy ; Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance Spectroscopy ; Atomic Absorption
Spectroscopy ; Raman Spectroscopy
; Transmission Electron Microscopy ;
Optical Emission Spectroscopy ; Summary of
Characterizing Properties
Selected ASTM Tests ; Viscoelastic Properties
; Rheology, Viscosity, and Flow
Online Viscoelastic Measurements for Plastics
Melt Processes
Optical Analysis via Microtoming
Thermal Properties
Useful Temperature Range ; Glass Transition
and Melt Temperatures ; Thermal Conductivity
; Heat Capacity ; Coefficient of
Linear Thermal Expansion ; Temperature
Dependence of Mechanical Properties ; Diffusion
and Transport Properties ; Permeability
; Migration
Overview of Plastic Properties
Melt Tests
Melt Flow Tests ; Melt Index Test ; Melt
Index Fractional Tests ; Molding Index Tests
; Measurements
Types of Scales
Radiography ; Ultrasonics ; Liquid Penetrants
; Acoustics ; Photoelastic Stress
Analysis ; Infrared Systems ; Vision System
Inspections ; Computer Image Processors

Temperature Scales
Nondestructive Tests
Computer Testing
Drying Hygroscopic Plastics
Laboratory Organizations Worldwide
Determining Moisture Content
American Society for Testing and Materials ;
International Organization for Standardization
; Underwriters’ Laboratory Classifications

International System of Units
Inspections
Identification of Plastics
Estimating Plastic Lifetimes
Quality Control
Quality Control Defined ; Quality Control
Variables
No More ABCs ; Need for Dependability
; Quality Auditing
QC Begins When Plastics Are Received
Reliability and Quality Control
Failure Analysis
Quality Control Methods
Quality Control and Quality Assurances
Auditing by Variables Analysis
Acceptable Quality Levels
Quality Optimization Goals
Total Quality Management
Training and People
Training and Quality
Emerging Trends in Training
Training versus Education
Economic Significance of Quality
Terminology
Cost of Quality
Chapter Statistical Process Control and
Quality Control
Overview
Combining Online SPC and Offline SQC ;
Improve Quality and Increase Profits ; Statistical
Material Selections: Reliabilities ; Statistical
Material Selections: Uncertainties That
Are Nonstatistical ; Statistical Probabilities
and Quality Control ; Statistics and Commitments
; Statistics and Injection Molding
Computers and Statistics ; Statistical Tools

Online Monitoring of Process Variables
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Process Control and Process Capability
Defect Prevention
Understanding Modern Methods of Control
Control Charts
Standard Deviations ; Frequency Distribution
; Control Chart
Standard Deviation versus Range
Basic Statistical Concepts
Mean Value, Range, and Standard Deviation
; Distribution ; Process Control Chart
; Machine Capability ; Process Capability

Importance of Control Charts
Practical Example
Machine Capability ; Process Capability
; Control Limits for the Process Control
Chart
Production Controls .; SPC Step One: Raw
Material ; SPC Step Two: Materials Handling
; SPC Step Three: Injection Molding
.; SPC Implementation: Summary of Experience

How to Succeed with SPC
Outlook
Terminology
Chapter Costing, Economics, and Management
Overview
Machine Sales ; Formulas for Business Failures
; Managing
Estimating Part Cost ; Automation of Data
Gathering ; Machinery Financing ; Energy
Savings
Costing
Technical Cost Modeling
Cost Analysis Methods
Material Times Two ; Material Cost plus Shop
Time ; Material Cost plus Loaded Shop Time
; Quotes
Variable Cost Elements ; Fixed Costs ;
Summary of Fixed and Variable Costs ; Process
Parameters ; Technical Cost Modeling
; Summary of Technical Cost Analysis
Technical Cost Analysis
Financial Plant Management
Cost Management
Information Necessary for Product Costing and
Cost Control ; Reporting from the Production
Floor and Management Control Reports
Gathering the Data for Profit Planning and Budgeting
; Establishing Profit, Goals, and Sales
Forecasts ; Developing the Detailed Plans
and Budgets ; Flexible Budgeting
Order Processing ; Inventory Control
; Production Scheduling and Control ;
Scheduling Approaches ; Purchasing
Profit Planning and Budgeting
Materials Management
Terminology
Chapter Specialized Injection Molding Processes
Introduction
Blow Moldings
Injection Blow Moldings ; Stretched Blow
Moldings ; Stretched Blow Moldings with
Handle ; Stretched Blow Molding Operation
Specialties ; Blow Molding Shrinkages ;
Troubleshooting ; Blow Molding versus Injection
Molding
Coinjection Molding
Injection Molding Sandwich Structures
Gas-Assist Injection Molding
Advantages and Disadvantages ; Basic Processes
and Procedures ; Molding Aspects
; Shrinkage ; Summary
Structural Foam Molding
Overview ; Performance ; Plastic Materials
; Characteristics of Foam ; Design
Analysis ; Blowing Agents ; Methods
of Processing SF with Chemical Blowing Agents
; Processing SF with Gas Blowing Agents
; Tooling ; Start-up for Molding
Injection-Compression Molding (Coining)
Multiline Molding
Counterflow Molding
Oscillatory Molding of Optical Compact Disks
Continuous Injection Molding
Digital Video Disk Moldings
Velcro Strips ; Electrically Insulated Buttons
for Coaxial Cables ; Railtrack Molding
The Mold ; Process Controls
Reaction Injection Molding
Liquid Injection Molding
Soluble Core Molding
Insert Molding
Inmolding
Two-Color Molding ; Decoration ; Paint
Coating ; Back Molding ; Two-Shot
Molding ; Inmold Assemblies ; Double-
Daylight Process
Overmolding Compatible Plastics with No Welding
Closure Moldings
Unscrewing Closures ; Conventional Unscrewing
Molds ; Unscrewing System Moldings
; Collapsible and Expandable Core
Molds ; Split-Cavity Molds ; Strippable
Thread Molds
Vacuum Molding
Tandem Injection Molding
Molding Melt Flow Oscillations
Ram Injection Molding
Golf Ball Moldings
Micro Injection Molding
Aircraft Canopies
Injection Molding Nonplastics
Introduction ; Metal Injection Molding ;
Ceramic Injection Molding
Terminology
Chapter Injection Molding Competition
Introduction
Plastic Fabricating Processes
Rotational Molding
Extrusions
Formings
Thermoforming
Cold Forming
Cold Draw Forming
Dip Forming
Pressure Forming
Rubber Pad Forming
Compression-Stretched Moldings
Solid-Phase Scrapless Forming
Solid-Phase Pressure Forming
Slip Forming
Castings
Foam Molding
Expandable Plastics
Compression Molding
Transfer Molding
Reinforced Plastics
Molds
Expandable Polystyrenes
Laminates
Screw Plunger Transfer Molding
Directional Properties ; Processes and Products

Stampable Reinforced Plastics
Machining Plastics
Processor Competition
Legal Matters
Accident Reports ; Acknowledgments ;
Chapter Act ; Conflicts of Interest
; Consumer Product Safety Act ; Copyright
; Defendant ; Employee Invention
Assignment ; Expert Witness ; Insurance
Risk Retention Act ; Invention
; Mold Contractional Obligation ; Patent
; Patentability ; Patent Information ;
Patent Infringement ; Patent Pooling with
Competitors ; Patent Search ; Patent
Term Extension ; Patent Terminology ;
Plaintiff ; Processor, Contract ; Product
Liability Law ; Protection Strategies ;
Quotations ; Right-To-Know ; Shop-
Right ; Software and Patents ; Tariff
; Term ; Tort Liability ; Trademark
; Trade Name ; Warranty
Summary
The Most Important Forming Technique
Processing Trends
Productivity
Machine Aging ; Response to Change
Plastics and Equipment Consumption
Machinery Sales
Trends in Machinery ; Computers and Injection
Molding ; Interfacing Machine Performance

Molding in an Industrialized Country
Compromises Must Frequently Be Made
Standard Industrial Classification
Plastic Industry Size
Energy and Plastics
Plastic Data: Theoretical Versus Actual Values
Markets
Packaging ; Velcro for Flexible Packaging
; Building and Construction ; Lumber
; Pallets ; Automotive Parts ; Printed
Circuit Boards and Surface Mounted Technology
; U.S. Postal Service ; Medical Applications
; Toilets and Water Conservation ;
Bearings ; Blow Molding Innovations ;
Beer Bottles ; Collapsible Squeeze Tubes
; Asthma Inhalers
Automated Production ; Energy Savings
Discipline ; Productivity ; Experience
; Plant Controls
Example ; Example ; Example
Myths and Facts ; Limited Oil Resources
; Limited US. Steel Resources ; Plastic
Advocates
Statistics: Fact and Fiction ; Landfill ; Recycling
; Incineration ; Degradable
Economic Control of Equipment
Management and People
Analysis of Plastics Affecting Business Strategies
Correcting Misperceptions about Plastics
Solid Waste Problem and Product Design Solutions
Analyze Failures
Creativity
Innovations and the Markets ; Industrial Designers
; Da Vinci’s Creativity
Target for Zero Defects
Design Successes
Excess Information: So What’s New?
Fabricating Employment
History
Barrel History ; Hopper Magnet ;
Blow Molding ; Coca-Cola Bottle ;
Coor’s Beer Bottle ; Recycling History ;
Squeeze Tube ; Zipper ; Waste Containers
; Shotgun Shells ; Water Treatment

Plastics, Cradle-to-Grave
Future for Injection Molded Plastics
Injection Molding in the Forefront
Summary
Profits and Time
Appendices . Abbreviations
. Conversions
. Symbols and Signs
. Web Sites on Plastics
References
About the Authors

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Injection Molding Handbook   الإثنين 01 أكتوبر 2012, 7:13 pm

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