كتاب Engineering Tribology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Engineering Tribology

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Engineering Tribology    السبت 24 مارس 2012, 10:28 pm

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Engineering Tribology


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

INTRODUCTION
Background
Meaning of tribology
Lubrication
Wear
Cost of friction and wear
Summary
References
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LUBRICANTS
Introduction
Oil viscosity
Dynamic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
Viscosity temperature relationship
Viscosity-temperature equations
Viscosity-temperature chart
Viscosity index
Viscosity pressure relationship
Viscosity-shear rate relationship
Pseudoplastic behaviour
Thixotropic behaviour
Viscosity measurements
Capillary viscometers
Rotational viscometers
Rotating cylinder viscometer
Cone on plate viscometer
Other viscometers
Viscosity of mixtures
Oil viscosity classification
VIII ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
SAE viscosity classification
ISO viscosity classification
Lubricant density and specific gravity
Thermal properties of lubricants
Specific heat
Thermal conductivity
Thermal diffusivity
Temperature characteristics of lubricants
Pour point and cloud point
Flash point and fire point
Volatility and evaporation
Oxidation stability
Thermal stability
Surface tension
Neutralization number
Carbon residue
Optical properties of lubricants
Refractive index
Additive compatibility and solubility
Additive compatibility
Additive solubility
Lubricant impurities and contaminants
Water content
Sulphur content
Ash content
Chlorine content
Solubility of gases in oils
Summary
References
LUBRICANTS AND THEIR COMPOSITION
Introduction
Mineral oils
Sources of mineral oils
Manufacture of mineral oils
Types of mineral oils
Chemical forms
Sulphur content
Viscosity
CONTENTS IX
Synthetic oils
Manufacturing of synthetic oils
Hydrocarbon synthetic lubricants
Polyalphaolefins
Polyphenyl ethers
Esters
Cycloaliphatics
Polyglycols
Silicon analogues of hydrocarbons
Silicones
Silahydrocarbons
Organohalogens
Perfluoropolyethers
Chlorofluorocarbons
Chlorotrifluoroethylenes
Perfluoropolyalkylethers
Emulsions and aqueous lubricants
Manufacturing of emulsions
Characteristics
Applications
Greases
Manufacturing of greases
Composition
Base oils
Thickener
Additives
Fillers
Lubrication mechanism of greases
Grease characteristics
Consistency of greases
Mechanical stability
Drop point
Oxidation stability
Thermal stability
Evaporation loss
Grease viscosity characteristics
Classification of greases
Grease compatibility
Degradation of greases
X ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Lubricant additives
Wear and friction improvers
Adsorption or boundary additives
Anti-wear additives
Extreme pressure additives
Anti-oxidants
Oil oxidation
Oxidation inhibitors
Corrosion control additives
Contamination control additives
Viscosity improvers
Pour point depressants
Foam inhibitors
Interference between additives
Summary
References
HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
Introduction
Reynolds equation
Simplifying assumptions
Equilibrium of an element
Continuity of flow in a column
Simplifications to the Reynolds equation
Unidirectional velocity approximation
Steady film thickness approximation
Isoviscous approximation
Infinitely long bearing approximation
Narrow bearing approximation
Bearing parameters predicted from Reynolds equation
Pressure distribution
Load capacity
Friction force
Coefficient of friction
Lubricant flow
Summary
Pad bearings
Infinite linear pad bearing
Bearing geometry
CONTENTS XI
Pressure distribution
Load capacity
Friction force
Coefficient of friction
Lubricant flow rate
Infinite Rayleigh step bearing
Other wedge geometries of infinite pad bearings
Tapered land wedge
Parabolic wedge
Parallel surface bearings
Spiral groove bearing
Finite pad bearings
Pivoted pad bearing
Inlet boundary conditions in pad bearing analysis
Converging-diverging wedges
Bearing geometry
Pressure distribution
Full-Sommerfeld boundary condition
Half-Sommerfeld boundary condition
Reynolds boundary condition
Load capacity
Journal bearings
Evaluation of the main parameters
Bearing geometry
Pressure distribution
Load capacity
Friction force
Coefficient of friction
Lubricant flow rate
Practical and operational aspects of journal bearings
Lubricant supply
Cavitation
Journal bearings with movable pads
Journal bearings incorporating a Rayleigh step
Oil whirl or lubricant caused vibration
Rotating load
Tilted shafts
Partial bearings
Elastic deformation of the bearing
XII ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Infinitely long approximation in journal bearings
Thermal effects in bearings
Heat transfer mechanisms in bearings
Conduction
Convection
Conducted/convected heat ratio
Isoviscous thermal analysis of bearings
Iterative method
Constant flow method
Non-isoviscous thermal analysis of bearings with locally varying viscosity
Multiple regression in bearing analysis
Bearing inlet temperature and thermal interaction between pads of a
Michell bearing
Limits of hydrodynamic lubrication
Hydrodynamic lubrication with non-Newtonian fluids
Turbulence and hydrodynamic lubrication
Hydrodynamic lubrication with non-Newtonian lubricants
Inertial effects in hydrodynamics
Compressible fluids
Compressible hydrodynamic lubrication in gas bearings
Reynolds equation for squeeze films
Pressure distribution
Load capacity
Squeeze time
Cavitation and squeeze films
Microscopic squeeze film effects between rough sliding surfaces
Porous bearings
Summary
References
COMPUTATIONAL HYDRODYNAMICS
Introduction
Non-dimensionalization of the Reynolds equation
The Vogelpohl parameter
Finite difference equivalent of the Reynolds equation
Definition of solution domain and boundary conditions
Calculation of pressure field
Calculation of dimensionless friction force and friction coefficient
Numerical solution technique for Vogelpohl equation
CONTENTS XIII
Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication in idealized journal
and partial arc bearings
Example of data from numerical analysis, the effect of shaft misalignment
Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication in a real bearing
Thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Governing equations and boundary conditions in
thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Governing equations in thermohydrodynamic lubrication for a
one-dimensional bearing
Thermohydrodynamic equations for the finite pad bearing
Boundary conditions
Finite difference equations for thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Treatment of boundary conditions in thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Computer program for the analysis of an infinitely long pad bearing in
the case of thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Example of the analysis of an infinitely long pad bearing in the case of
thermohydrodynamic lubrication
Elastic deformations in a pad bearing
Computer program for the analysis of an elastically deforming onedimensional
pivoted Michell pad bearing
Effect of elastic deformation of the pad on load capacity and film thickness
Cavitation and film reformation in grooved journal bearings
Computer program for the analysis of grooved ° journal bearings
Example of the analysis of a grooved ° journal bearing
Vibrational stability in journal bearings
Determination of stiffness and damping coefficients
Computer program for the analysis of vibrational stability in a partial arc
journal bearing
Example of the analysis of vibrational stability in a partial arc journal bearing
Summary
References
HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION
Introduction
Hydrostatic bearing analysis
Flat circular hydrostatic pad bearing
Pressure distribution
Lubricant flow
Load capacity
Friction torque
XIV ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Friction power loss
Non-flat circular hydrostatic pad bearings
Pressure distribution
Lubricant flow
Load capacity
Friction torque
Friction power loss
Generalized approach to hydrostatic bearing analysis
Flat circular pad bearings
Flat square pad bearings
Optimization of hydrostatic bearing design
Minimization of power
Low speed recessed bearings
High speed recessed bearings
Control of lubricant film thickness and bearing stiffness
Stiffness with constant flow method
Stiffness with capillary restrictors
Stiffness with an orifice
Stiffness with pressure sensors
Aerostatic bearings
Pressure distribution
Gas flow
Load capacity
Friction torque
Power loss
Hybrid bearings
Stability of hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings
Summary
References
ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
Introduction
 Contact stresses
Simplifying assumptions to Hertz's theory
Stress status in static contact
Stress status in lubricated rolling and sliding contacts
Contact between two elastic spherical or spheroidal bodies
Geometry of contacting elastic bodies
Two elastic bodies with convex surfaces in contact
CONTENTS XV
Two elastic bodies with one convex and one flat surface in contact
Two elastic bodies with one convex and one concave surface in
contact
Contact area, pressure, maximum deflection and position of the
maximum shear stress
Contact between two spheres
Contact between a sphere and a plane surface
Contact between two parallel cylinders
Contact between two crossed cylinders with equal diameters
Elliptical contact between two elastic bodies, general case
Total deflection
Elastohydrodynamic lubricating films
Effects contributing to the generation of elastohydrodynamic films
Hydrodynamic film formation
Modification of film geometry by elastic deformation
Transformation of lubricant viscosity and rheology under pressure
Approximate solution of Reynolds equation with simultaneous elastic
deformation and viscosity rise
Pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic films
Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formulae
Effects of the non-dimensional parameters on EHL contact pressures and
film profiles
Effect of the speed parameter
Effect of the materials parameter
Effect of load parameter
Effect of ellipticity parameter
Lubrication regimes in EHL - film thickness formulae
Isoviscous-rigid
Piezoviscous-rigid
Isoviscous-elastic
Piezoviscous-elastic
Identification of the lubrication regime
Elastohydrodynamic film thickness measurements
Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication and mixed or partial EHL
Partial or mixed EHL
Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication
Surface temperature at the conjunction between contacting solids and
its effect on EHL
Calculation of surface conjunction temperature
Flash temperature in circular contacts
XVI ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Flash temperature in square contacts
Flash temperature in line contacts
True flash temperature rise
Frictional temperature rise of lubricated contacts
Mechanism of heat transfer within the EHL film
Effect of surface films on conjunction temperatures
Measurements of surface temperature in the EHL contacts
Traction and EHL
A simplified analysis of traction in the EHL contact
Non-Newtonian lubricant rheology and EHL
EHL between meshing gear wheels
Summary
References
BOUNDARY AND EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICATION
Introduction
Low temperature - low load lubrication mechanisms
Low temperature - high load lubrication mechanisms
Model of adsorption on sliding surfaces
Physisorption
Chemisorption
Influence of the molecular structure of the lubricant on
adsorption lubrication
Influence of oxygen and water
Dynamic nature of adsorption under sliding conditions
Mixed lubrication and scuffing
Metallurgical effects
Interaction between surfactant and carrier fluid
High temperature - medium load lubrication mechanisms
Chain matching
Thick films of soapy or amorphous material
Soap layers
Amorphous layers
High temperature - high load lubrication mechanisms
Model of lubrication by sacrificial films
Additive reactivity and its effect on lubrication
Nascent metallic surfaces and accelerated film formation
Influence of oxygen and water on the lubrication mechanism by
sacrificial films
CONTENTS XVII
Mechanism of lubrication by milder EP Additives
Function of active elements other than sulphur
Lubrication with two active elements
Temperature distress
Speed limitations of sacrificial film mechanism
Tribo-emission from worn surfaces
Boundary and EP lubrication of non-metallic surfaces
Summary
References
SOLID LUBRICATION AND SURFACE TREATMENTS
Introduction
Lubrication by solids
Lubrication by lamellar solids
Friction and wear characteristics of lamellar solids
Graphite and molybdenum disulphide
Carbon-based materials other than graphite
Minor solid lubricants
Reduction of friction by soft metallic films
Reduction of friction by metal oxides at high temperatures
Deposition methods of solid lubricants
Traditional methods of solid lubricant deposition
Modern methods of solid lubricant deposition
Solid lubricants as additives to oils and polymers
Wear resistant coatings and surface treatments
Techniques of producing wear resistant coatings
Coating techniques dependent on vacuum or gas at very low pressure
Physical vapour deposition
Chemical vapour deposition
Physical-chemical vapour deposition
Ion implantation
Coating processes requiring localized sources of intense heat
Surface welding
Thermal spraying
Laser surface hardening and alloying
Coating processes based on deposition in the solid state
Miscellaneous coating processes
Application of coatings and surface treatments in wear and friction control
Characteristics of wear resistant coatings
XVIII ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Summary
References
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTACT BETWEEN SOLIDS
Introduction
Surfaces of solids
Surfaces at a nano scale
Surface topography
Characterization of surface topography
Characterization of surface topography by statistical parameters
Multi-scale characterization of surface topography
Characterization of surface topography by Fourier transform
Characterization of surface topography by wavelets
Characterization of surface topography by fractals
Optimum surface roughness
Contact between solids
Model of contact between solids based on statistical parameters of rough
surfaces
Model of contact between solids based on the fractal geometry of rough
surfaces
Effect of sliding on contact between solid surfaces
Friction and wear
Onset of sliding and mechanism of stick-slip
Structural differences between static and sliding contacts
Friction and other contact phenomena in rolling
Concentration of frictional heat at the asperity contacts
Wear between surfaces of solids
Summary
References
ABRASIVE, EROSIVE AND CAVITATION WEAR
Introduction
Abrasive wear
Mechanisms of abrasive wear
Modes of abrasive wear
Analytical models of abrasive wear
Abrasivity of particles
Abrasive wear resistance of materials
Abrasive wear resistance of steels
Abrasive wear resistance of polymers and rubbers
CONTENTS XIX
Abrasive wear resistance of ceramics
Effect of temperature on abrasive wear
Effect of moisture on abrasive wear
Control of abrasive wear
Erosive wear
Mechanisms of erosive wear
Effect of impingement angle and impact speed on erosive wear rate
Effect of particle shape, hardness, size and flux rates on erosive wear rate
Erosive wear by liquid
Effect of temperature on erosive wear
Effect of erosion media on erosive wear
Erosive wear resistance of materials
Erosive wear resistance of steels
Erosive wear resistance of polymers
Erosive wear of ceramics and cermets
Cavitation wear
Mechanism of cavitation wear
Cavitation wear resistance of materials
Summary
References
ADHESION AND ADHESIVE WEAR
Introduction
Mechanism of adhesion
Metal-metal adhesion
Metal-polymer adhesion
Metal-ceramic adhesion
Polymer-polymer and ceramic-ceramic adhesion
Effects of adhesion between wearing surfaces
Friction due to adhesion
Junction growth between contacting asperities as a cause of
extreme friction
Seizure and scuffing
Asperity deformation and formation of wear particles
Transfer films
Control of the adhesive wear
Contaminant layers formed due to surface oxidation and bulk impurities
Lubricants
Favourable combinations of sliding materials
XX ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Summary
References
CORROSIVE AND OXIDATIVE WEAR
Introduction
Corrosive wear
Transition between corrosive and adhesive wear
Synergism between corrosive and abrasive wear
Tribochemical polishing
Oxidative wear
Kinetics of oxide film growth on metals at high and low temperatures
Oxidative wear at high sliding speeds
Oxidative wear at low sliding speeds
Oxidative wear at high temperature and stress
Oxidative wear at low temperature applications
Transition between oxidative and adhesive wear
Oxidative wear under lubricated conditions
Means of controlling corrosive and oxidative wear
Summary
References
FATIGUE WEAR
Introduction
Fatigue wear during sliding
Surface crack initiated fatigue wear
Subsurface crack initiated fatigue wear
Effect of lubrication on fatigue wear during sliding
Plastic ratchetting
Fatigue wear during rolling
Causes of contact fatigue
Asperity contact during EHL and the role of debris in the lubricant
in contact fatigue
Material imperfections
Self-propagating nature of contact fatigue cracks
Subsurface and surface modes of contact fatigue
Effect of lubricant on contact fatigue
Hydraulic pressure crack propagation
Chemical effects of lubricant additives, oxygen and water on contact fatigue
Materials effect on contact fatigue
CONTENTS XXI
Influence of operating conditions on rolling wear and contact fatigue
Means of controlling fatigue wear
Summary
References
FRETTING AND MINOR WEAR MECHANISMS
Introduction
Fretting wear
Microscopic movements within the contact under applied loads
Elastic model for fretting contacts
Elasto-plastic model for fretting contacts
Effect of amplitude and debris retention on fretting wear
Environmental effects on fretting wear
Effects of temperature and lubricants on fretting
Effect of materials properties and surface finish on fretting
Fretting fatigue
Practical examples of fretting
Means of controlling fretting
Melting wear
Wear due to electrical discharges
Diffusive wear
Impact wear
Summary
References
WEAR OF NON-METALLIC MATERIALS
Introduction
Tribology of polymers
Sliding wear of polymers, transfer layers on a harder counterface
Influence of counterface roughness, hardness and material type on
transfer films and associated wear and friction of polymers
Counterface hardness
Counterface roughness
Counterface surface energy
Influence of temperature on polymer wear and friction
Limit on frictional temperature rise imposed by surface melting
Effect of high frictional temperatures and sliding speeds on wear
Combined effect of high surface roughness and elevated contact
temperature on wear
Fatigue wear of polymers and long term wear kinetics
XXII ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY
Visco-elasticity and the rubbery state
Friction and wear in the rubbery state
Schallamach waves
Visco-elasticity and friction of rubbers
Wear mechanisms particular to rubbery solids
Effect of lubricant, corrosive agents and microstructure on wear and
friction of polymers
Effects of lubricants
Effects of corrosive agents
Effect of oxidizing and biochemical reagents
Effects of polymer microstructure
Tribology of polymer composites
Polymer blends
Fibre reinforced polymers
Chopped fibre reinforced polymers
Unidirectional and woven fibre reinforcements
Modelling of wear of fibre reinforced polymers
Powder composites
Wear and friction of ceramics
Unlubricated wear and friction of ceramic-ceramic contacts
Dry friction and wear of ceramics at room temperature
Dry friction and wear of ceramics at elevated temperatures
Friction and wear of ceramics in the presence of water or humid
air
Quantitative wear model of ceramics
Dry wear and friction characteristics of individual ceramics
Lubricated wear and friction of ceramic-ceramic contacts
Liquid lubrication
Solid lubricants
Wear and friction of ceramics against metallic materials
Wear and friction of ceramics against polymers
Wear and friction of ceramic matrix composites
Summary
References
APPENDIX
Introduction
A User friendly interface
A Program ‘VISCOSITY’
CONTENTS XXIII
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘SIMPLE’
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘PARTIAL’
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘THERMAL’
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘DEFLECTION’
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘GROOVE’
Program description
List of variables
A Program ‘STABILITY’
Program description
List of variables
INDEX



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رابط تنزيل كتاب Engineering Tribology

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شارك معنا فى المسابقة الهندسية الشهرية
كيفية التسجيل فى منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى


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عدل سابقا من قبل Admin في الثلاثاء 02 أغسطس 2016, 10:25 pm عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
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مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Engineering Tribology    السبت 15 سبتمبر 2012, 5:30 pm

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كتاب Engineering Tribology

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