كتاب Guidebook on non-destructive testing of concrete structures
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 كتاب Guidebook on non-destructive testing of concrete structures

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عدد المساهمات : 14273
التقييم : 22960
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Guidebook on non-destructive testing of concrete structures   الخميس 15 مارس 2012, 11:06 pm





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Guidebook on
non-destructive testing of
concrete structures

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

1. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Introduction................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1. Importance and need of non-destructive testing ....................................... 1
1.1.2. Basic methods for NDT of concrete structures......................................... 2
1.1.3. Qualification and certification .................................................................. 3
1.2. Basic manufacturing processes and defects of concrete structures............................ 3
1.2.1. Types of concrete structures ..................................................................... 3
1.2.2. Composition of concrete........................................................................... 4
1.2.3. Process of concrete manufacture .............................................................. 7
1.2.4. Properties of concrete and their control.................................................... 9
1.2.5. Discontinuities and defects in concrete structures.................................. 11
1.2.6. Situations where NDT is an option to consider for
investigation of in situ concrete .............................................................. 13
1.3. Testing of concrete................................................................................................... 13
1.3.1. Quality control tests................................................................................ 13
1.3.2. Partial destructive tests ........................................................................... 15
1.3.3. Other tests ............................................................................................... 17
1.4. Comparison of NDT methods.................................................................................. 26
1.5. Quality control ......................................................................................................... 32
1.5.1. The need for quality and quality control................................................. 32
1.5.2. Basic definitions related to quality assurance......................................... 33
1.5.3. Responsibility for quality........................................................................ 35
1.5.4. Quality control applications in concrete construction ............................ 37
1.5.5. Quality management system ................................................................... 40
2. VISUAL INSPECTION....................................................................................................... 44
2.1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 44
2.2. Tools and equipment for visual inspection .............................................................. 44
2.3. General procedure of visual inspection.................................................................... 44
2.4. Applications of visual inspection............................................................................. 46
2.5. Sketches of typical defects found by visual inspection............................................ 46
3. HALF-CELL ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD ...................................................... 56
3.1. Fundamental principle ............................................................................................. 56
3.2. Equipment for half-cell electrical potential method ................................................ 56
3.3. General procedure for half-cell electrical potential method .................................... 57
3.4. Applications of half-cell electrical potential testing method ................................... 59
3.5. Range and limitations of half-cell electrical potential inspection
method ..................................................................................................................... 59
4. SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER TEST.......................................................................... 61
4.1. Fundamental principle ............................................................................................. 61
4.2. Equipment for Schmidt/rebound hammer test ......................................................... 61
4.3. General procedure for Schmidt rebound hammer test ............................................. 61
4.4. Applications of Schmidt rebound hammer test........................................................ 62
4.5. Range and limitations of Schmidt rebound hammer test ......................................... 63
5. CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST......................................................... 67
5.1. Fundamental principle ............................................................................................. 67
5.2. Equipment for carbonation depth measurement test................................................ 67
5.3. General procedure for carbonation depth measurement test.................................... 67
5.4. Range and limitations of carbonation depth measurement test ............................... 68
6. PERMEABILITY TEST ...................................................................................................... 69
6.1. Fundamental principle ............................................................................................. 69
6.2. General procedure for permeability test................................................................... 69
6.3. Equipment for permeability test............................................................................... 69
6.3.1. Initial surface absorption test.................................................................. 69
6.3.2. Modified Figg permeability test ............................................................. 69
6.3.3. In situ rapid chloride ion permeability test ............................................. 70
6.4. Applications of permeability test ............................................................................. 70
6.5. Range and limitations of permeability test .............................................................. 70
7. PENETRATION RESISTANCE OR WINDSOR PROBE TEST....................................... 72
7.1. Fundamental principle ............................................................................................. 72
7.2. Equipment for Windsor probe test........................................................................... 72
7.3. General procedure for Windsor probe test............................................................... 72
7.4. Applications of Windsor probe test ......................................................................... 73
7.4.1. Formwork removal ................................................................................. 73
7.4.2. As a substitute for core testing................................................................ 73
7.5. Advantages and limitations of Windsor probe test .................................................. 74
8. RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT ...................................................................................... 76
8.1. Fundamental principles............................................................................................ 76
8.2. Equipment................................................................................................................ 76
8.3. General procedure.................................................................................................... 77
8.4. Applications ............................................................................................................. 77
9. ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS OF TESTING CONCRETE..................................... 79
9.1. Fundamental principles............................................................................................ 79
9.2. Equipment for electromagnetic inspection .............................................................. 79
9.3. General procedure for electromagnetic testing ........................................................ 79
9.4. Applications of electromagnetic testing method...................................................... 79
9.5. Range and limitations of electromagnetic testing method....................................... 80
9.6. Work or site calibration ........................................................................................... 81
10. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING ............................................................................................ 82
10.1. Fundamental principles.......................................................................................... 82
10.2. Equipment for radiographic testing method .......................................................... 82
10.2.1. X ray equipment.................................................................................... 82
10.2.2. Gamma ray sources............................................................................... 83
10.2.3. Comparison of X ray sources and gamma ray sources ......................... 85
10.3. General procedure for radiographic testing method............................................... 85
10.4. Extracts from BS1881 Part 205 ............................................................................. 86
10.4.1. Radiation sources.................................................................................. 86
10.4.2. Type of film .......................................................................................... 86
10.4.3. Lead intensifying screens...................................................................... 86
10.4.4. Cassettes ............................................................................................... 87
10.4.5. Calculation of geometric unsharpness .................................................. 87
10.4.6. Calculation of source-to-film distance.................................................. 88
10.4.7. Calculation of exposure time................................................................ 89
10.4.8. Alignment of the beam ......................................................................... 89
10.4.9. Overlap of film ..................................................................................... 89
10.4.10. Image quality ...................................................................................... 90
10.5. Radiation protection in industrial radiography ...................................................... 90
10.5.1. Introduction........................................................................................... 90
10.5.2. Principles of radiation protection.......................................................... 91
10.5.3. Administrative requirements ................................................................ 91
10.5.4. Management requirements.................................................................... 92
10.5.5. Practical protection ............................................................................... 92
10.5.6. Radiation monitoring............................................................................ 93
10.5.7. Storage, movement and transport of radiographis sources
and exposure devices ............................................................................ 94
10.5.8. Maintenance and leak testing................................................................ 94
10.5.9. Emergency response planning .............................................................. 94
10.5.10. Source disposal ................................................................................... 95
10.6. Applications of radiographic testing method......................................................... 95
10.6.1. Measurement of reinforcing bar depth or flaw depth — rigid
formula method..................................................................................... 95
10.6.2. Measurement of reinforcing bar depth or flaw depth —
single marker approximate method....................................................... 96
10.6.3. Measurement of reinforcing bar depth or flaw depth —
double marker approximate method ..................................................... 96
10.7. Radiographic application to post tensioned concrete bridges................................ 99
References to Section 10 .......................................................................................................... 99
11. ULTRASONIC TESTING............................................................................................... 100
11.1. Pulse velocity test ................................................................................................ 100
11.1.1. Fundamental principle ........................................................................ 100
11.1.2. Equipment for pulse velocity test ....................................................... 100
11.1.3. Applications........................................................................................ 101
11.1.4. Determination of pulse velocity.......................................................... 101
11.1.5. Factors influencing pulse velocity measurements .............................. 105
11.1.6. Detection of defects ............................................................................ 107
11.1.7. Developments in ultrasonic tomography ............................................ 111
11.2. Ultrasound pulse echo.......................................................................................... 112
11.2.1. Thickness measurement of concrete slabs with
one sided access .................................................................................. 112
11.2.2. Post-tensioned duct inspection ........................................................... 114
11.3. Impact-echo/resonance frequency/stress wave test.............................................. 115
11.3.1. Fundamental principles....................................................................... 115
11.3.2. Equipment for impact-echo testing..................................................... 116
11.3.3. General procedure for impact-echo testing......................................... 116
11.3.4. Applications of and examples of the use of the impact-echo
testing method..................................................................................... 117
11.3.5. Range and limitations of impact-echo testing method ....................... 11
11.4. Relative amplitude method .................................................................................. 118
11.4.1. Fundamental principles....................................................................... 118
11.4.2. Equipment for relative amplitude method .......................................... 119
11.4.3. General procedure for relative amplitude method .............................. 119
11.4.4. Applications of relative amplitude method......................................... 120
11.4.5. Range and limitations of relative amplitude method.......................... 122
11.5. Velocity versus rebound number curves.............................................................. 123
11.5.1. Introduction......................................................................................... 123
11.5.2. Procedure for drawing velocity-rebound number curves.................... 123
11.5.3. Accuracy of measurement of concrete properties using
velocity rebound number curves ........................................................ 127
12. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY.................................................................................... 129
12.1. Fundamental principles........................................................................................ 129
12.2. Equipment for infrared thermographic method ................................................... 131
12.3. General procedure for infrared thermographic method ....................................... 132
12.4. Some applications of the infrared thermographic method................................... 133
12.5. Advantages and limitations of infrared thermography......................................... 135
13. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR ............................................................................. 137
13.1. Fundamental principle ......................................................................................... 137
13.1.1. Behaviour of a microwave beam at the interface of two
different materials ............................................................................... 137
13.2. Equipment for the GPR technique ....................................................................... 140
13.3. Application of GPR techniques ........................................................................... 142
13.4. Accuracy and interpretation of GPR.................................................................... 142
13.5. Advantages and limitations of GPR techniques................................................... 143
13.5.1. Advantages ......................................................................................... 143
13.5.2. Limitations.......................................................................................... 143
13.6. Safety advice........................................................................................................ 145
13.7. Examples of inspection of structures ................................................................... 145
13.7.1. Detection of underground utilities ...................................................... 145
13.7.2. Inspection of tunnel lining .................................................................. 145
13.7.3. Detection of delamination in concrete bridge decks........................... 147
14. RADIOISOTOPE GAUGES............................................................................................ 152
14.1. Thickness and density gauges .............................................................................. 152
14.1.1. Fundamental principles....................................................................... 152
14.1.2. General procedure for thickness and density gauges .......................... 153
14.1.3. Equipment for thickness and density gauges ...................................... 155
14.1.4. Applications of thickness and density gauges .................................... 157
14.1.5. Advantages and limitations of thickness and density gauges ............. 160
14.2. Moisture gauges ................................................................................................... 160
14.2.1. Fundamental principles....................................................................... 160
14.2.2. Applications of moisture gauges ........................................................ 161
15. OTHER METHODS OF NDT......................................................................................... 162
15.1. Acoustic emission ................................................................................................ 162
15.2. Computer tomography ......................................................................................... 162
15.3. Strain sensing....................................................................................................... 165
15.3.1. Mechanical gauges.............................................................................. 165
15.3.2. Electrical resistance gauges ................................................................ 165
15.3.3. Acoustic gauges .................................................................................. 166
15.3.4. Electrical displacement transducers.................................................... 166
15.3.5. Other types of strain measuring devices ............................................. 166
15.3.6. Choice of strain measuring method .................................................... 167
15.4. Corrosion rate measurement ................................................................................ 168
16. METHODS OF SURVEY ............................................................................................... 170
16.1. Introduction and fundamental principles ............................................................. 170
16.2. Methods and inspection technique required ........................................................ 170
16.2.1. First survey (regular inspection) ......................................................... 170
16.2.2. Second survey (specific/particular inspection) ................................... 171
16.2.3. Third survey........................................................................................ 180
16.3. Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 182
17. CASE STUDIES .............................................................................................................. 183
17.1. Radar tests on concrete bridges............................................................................ 183
17.1.1. Field measurements, Frankfurt, Germany .......................................... 183
17.1.2. Field measurements , Oslo, Norway................................................... 183
17.1.3. Conclusion .......................................................................................... 184
17.2. Building case study: quasi non-destructive structural condition
assessment of self pre-stressed reinforced concrete........................................ 184
17.2.1. Trusses at Berlin Tempelhof Airport.................................................. 184
17.2.2. Reinforcement tests ............................................................................ 189
17.2.3. Summarized evaluation and outlook .................................................. 194
17.3. Radar investigation of a pre-cast post-tensioned concrete
segmental rail bridge....................................................................................... 195
17.3.1. Description of bridge .......................................................................... 196
17.3.2. Inspection and assessment .................................................................. 197
17.3.3. Testing procedures.............................................................................. 198
17.3.4. Digital radar testing ............................................................................ 199
17.3.5. Analysis of the problem...................................................................... 200
17.3.6. UK perspective ................................................................................... 202
17.3.7. Conclusions ........................................................................................ 202
17.4. Flyover ................................................................................................................. 203
17.5. Scour of riverbeds around bridge piers ................................................................ 204
17.6. Assessment of sluices .......................................................................................... 205
18. CODES, STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURES............................. 207
18.1. General considerations......................................................................................... 207
18.1.1. The need for standards........................................................................ 207
18.1.2. Different categories of standards ........................................................ 207
18.2. Standardization organizations and some of the standards relating
to testing concrete ........................................................................................... 208
18.2.1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ....................... 208
18.2.2. British Standards Institution (BSI) ..................................................... 208
18.2.3. German Standards Institution (Deutsches Institut
für Normung) (DIN)............................................................................ 209
18.2.4. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ........................ 210
18.2.5. Australian Standards International...................................................... 210
18.2.6. American Concrete Institute ............................................................... 211
18.2.7. DGZfP Recommendations: (German Society for Nondestructive
Testing) ............................................................................... 211
18.2.8. Japanese Society for Non destructive Inspection................................ 212
18.2.9. Japan Concrete Institute (JCI)............................................................. 212
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 213
CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW............................................................ 231


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