كتاب Plastics Materials (7th Edition) - صفحة 2
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 كتاب Plastics Materials (7th Edition)

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Plastics Materials (7th Edition)   السبت 03 مارس 2012, 11:34 am

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Plastics Materials (7th Edition)
SEVENTH EDITION
J. A. Brydson
Former Head of the Department of Physical Sciences and Technology,
Polytechnic of North London (now known as the University of North London)



ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :
  
1 The Historical Development of Plastics Materials
1.1 Natural Plastics
1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid
1.5 Developments since 1939
1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics
1.7 The Market for Plastics
1.8 The Future for Plastics
1.3 1900-1930
The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics
2 The Chemical Nature of Plastics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Behaviour
2.3 Further Consideration of Addition Polymerisation
2.3.2 Ionic polymerisation
2.3.3 Ziegler-Natta and metallocene polymerisation
Elementary kinetics of free-radical addition polymerisation
2.4 Condensation Polymerisation
3 States of Aggregation in Polymers
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Linear Amorphous Polymers
3.3 Crystalline Polymers
3.3.1 Orientation and crystallisation
3.3.2 Liquid crystal polymers
Orientation in linear amorphous polymers
3.4 Cross-linked Structures
3.5 Polyblends
3.6 Summary
vi Contents
4 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Factors Affecting the Glass Transition Temperature
4.3 Factors Affecting the Ability to Crystallise
4.4 Factors Affecting the Crystalline Melting Point
4.5 Some Individual Properties
4.5.1 Melt viscosity
4.5.2 Yield strength and modulus
4.5.3 Density
4.5.4 Impact strength
5 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Chemical Bonds
5.3 Polymer Solubility
5.3.1 Plasticisers
5.3.2 Extenders
5.3.3 Determination of solubility parameter
5.3.4 Thermodynamics and solubility
Effects of Thermal, Photochemical and High-energy Radiation
5.4 Chemical Reactivity
5.6 Aging and Weathering
5.7 Diffusion and Permeability
5.8 Toxicity
5.9 Fire and Plastics
6 Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties
6.1 Introduction
6.4 Electronic Applications of Polymers
6.5 Electrically Conductive Polymers
6.6 Optical Properties
Appendix-Electrical Testing
Dielectric Constant, Power Factor and Structure
Some Quantitative Relationships of Dielectrics
7 Additives for Plastics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Fillers
7.2.1 Coupling agents
7.3 Plasticisers and Softeners
7.4 Lubricants and Flow Promoters
7.5 Anti-aging Additives
7.5.1 Antioxidants
7.5.2 Antiozonants
7.5.3 Stabilisers against dehydrochlorination
7.5.4 Ultraviolet absorbers and related materials
7.6 Flame Retarders
7.7 Colorants
7.8 Blowing Agents
7.9 Cross-linking Agents
7.10 Photodegradants
7.11 2-Oxazolines
Contents vii
8 Principles of the Processing of Plastics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Melt Processing of Thermoplastics
8.2.1 Hygroscopic behaviour
8.2.2 Granule characteristics
8.2.4 Thermal stability
8.2.5 Flow properties
8.2.5.1 Terminology
8.2.5.2 Effect of environmental and molecular factors
on viscous flow properties
8.2.5.3 Flow in an injection mould
8.2.5.4 Elastic effects in polymer melts
8.2.6 Thermal properties affecting cooling
8.2.7 Crystallisation
8.2.8 Orientation and shrinkage
Melt Processing of Thermosetting Plastics
Processing in the Rubbery State
Solution, Suspension and Casting Processes
Thermal properties influencing polymer melting
8.6 Summary
9 Principles of Product Design
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Rigidity of Plastics Materials
9.2.1 The assessment of maximum service temperature
9.2.1.1 Assessment of thermal stability
9.2.1.2 Assessment of softening point
The assessment of impact strength
9.3 Toughness
9.4 Stress-Strain-Time Behaviour
9.4.1 The WLF equations
9.4.2 Creep curves
9.5 Recovery from Deformation
9.6 Distortion, Voids and Frozen-in Stress
9.7 Conclusions
Practical assessment of long-term behaviour
10 Polyethylene
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Preparation of Monomer
10.3 Polymerisation
10.3.1 High-pressure polymerisation
10.3.2 Ziegler processes
10.3.3 The Phillips process
10.3.4 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) process
10.3.5 Processes for making linear low-density polyethylene and
metallocene polyethylene
Structure and Properties of Polyethylene
10.5.1 Mechanical properties
10.5.2 Thermal properties
10.5.3 Chemical properties
10.5.4 Electrical properties
10.5.6 Properties of metallocene-catalysed polyethylenes
10.5 Properties of Polyethylene
Properties of LLDPE and VLDPE
viii Contents
10.6 Additives
10.7 Processing
10.9 Cross-linked Polyethylene
10.10 Chlorinated Polyethylene
10.11 Applications
Polyethylenes of Low and High Molecular Weight
11 Aliphatic Polyolefins other than Polyethylene, and Diene Rubbers
11.1 Polypropylene
11.1.1 Preparation of polypropylene
11.1.3 Properties of isotactic polypropylene
11.1.4 Additives for isotactic polypropylene
11.1.5 Processing characteristics
11.1.6 Applications
11.1.7 Atactic and syndiotactic polypropylene
11.1.8 Chlorinated polypropylene
11.2.1 Atactic polybut- 1-ene
Structure and properties of polypropylene
11.2 Polybut-1-ene
11.3 Polyisobutylene
11.4 Poly-(4-methylpent-l-ene)
11.4.1 Structure and properties
11.4.2 General properties
11.4.3 Processing
11.4.4 Applications
11.5 Other Aliphatic Olefin Homopolymers
11.6 Copolymers Containing Ethylene
1 1.6.1
1 1.6.2 Ethylene-cyclo-olefin copolymers
11.7 Diene Rubbers
Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers (ECO)
11.7.1 Natural rubber
11.7.2 Synthetic polyisoprene (IR)
11.7.3 Polybutadiene
11.7.4 Styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR)
11.7.4.1 ‘High styrene resins’
11.7.5 Nitrile rubber (NBR)
11.7.6 Chloroprene rubbers (CR)
11.7.7 Butadiene-pentadiene rubbers
11.8 Thermoplastic Diene Rubbers
11.9 Aliphatic Olefin Rubbers
11.10 Rubbery Cyclo-olefin (Cyclo-alkene) Polymers
11.9.1 Thermoplastic polyolefin rubbers
1 1.10.1 Aliphatic polyalkenamers
11.10.2 Polynorbomene
11.10.3 Chlorine-containing copolymers
11.11 1,2-Polybutadiene
11 .I2 Ethylene-styrene copolymers
11.13 Other elastomers
12 Vinyl Chloride Polymers
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Preparation of Vinyl Chloride
12.3 Polymerisation
12.4 Structure of Poly(viny1 chloride)
12.4.1 Characterisation of commercial polymers
Compounding Ingredients
12.5.1 Stabilisers
12.5.2 Plasticisers
12.5.3 Extenders
12.5.4 Lubricants
12.5.5 Fillers
12.5.6 Pigments
12.5.7
12.5.8 Miscellaneous additives
12.5.9 Formulations
Properties of PVC Compounds
Processing
12.7.1 Plasticised PVC
12.7.2 Unplasticised PVC
12.7.3 Pastes
12.7.4 Copolymers
12.7.5 Latices
Applications
Miscellaneous Products
12.9.1 Crystalline PVC
12.9.2 Chlorinated PVC
12.9.3 Graft polymers based on PVC
12.9.4 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers
12.9.5 Vinyl chloride-N-cyclohexylmaleimide copolymers
Polymeric impact modifiers and processing aids
13 Fluorine-containing Polymers
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Polytetrafluoroethylene
13.2. I Preparation of monomer
13.2.2 Polymerisation
13.2.3 Structure and properties
13.2.4 General properties
13.2.5 Processing
13.2.6 Additives
13.2.7 Applications
13.3 Tetrafluoroethylene-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymers
1 3.4 Tetrafluoroethylene-Ethylene Copolymers (ETFE)
13.5 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers (PCTFE)
13.6 Poly(viny1 fluoride) (PVF)
13.7 Poly(viny1idene fluoride)
1 3.9 Hexafluoroisobutylene-Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers
13.10 Fluorine-containing Rubbers
13.11 Thermoplastic fluoroelastomers
13.12 Miscellaneous Fluoropolymers
Poly(viny1 acetate) and its Derivatives
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Poly(viny1 acetate)
and Copolymers with Ethylene (ECTFE)
Other Plastics Materials Containing Tetrafluoroethylene
14.2.1 Preparation of the monomer
1 4.2.2 Polymerisation
14.2.3 Properties and uses
14.3.1 Structure and properties
14.3.2 Applications
14.3 Poly(viny1 alcohol)
Contents ix
x Contents
14.4 The Poly(viny1 acetals)
14.4.1 Poly(viny1 formal)
14.4.2 Poly(viny1 acetal)
14.4.3 Poly(viny1 butyral)
14.5 Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers
14.6 Poly(viny1 cinnamate)
14.7 Other Organic Vinyl Ester Polymers
15 Acrylic Plastics
Introduction
Poly(methy1 methacrylate)
15.2.1 Preparation of monomer
15.2.2 Polymerisation
15.2.3 Structure and properties
15.2.5 Additives
15.2.6 Processing
15.2.7 Applications
Methyl Methacrylate Polymers with Enhanced Impact
Resistance and Softening Point
Nitrile Resins
Acrylate Rubbers
Thermosetting Acrylic Polymers
Acrylic Adhesives
Hydrophilic Polymers
Poly(methacry1imide)
Miscellaneous Methacrylate and Chloroacrylate Polymers
and Copolymers
Other Acrylic Polymers
General properties of poly(methy1 methacrylate)
16 Plastics Based on Styrene
Introduction
Preparation of the Monomer
16.2.1 Laboratory preparation
16.2.2 Commercial preparation
Polymerisation
16.3.1 Mass polymerisation
16.3.2 Solution polymerisation
16.3.3 Suspension polymerisation
16.3.4 Emulsion polymerisation
16.3.5 Grades available
Properties and Structure of Polystyrene
General Properties
High-impact Polystyrenes (HIPS) (Toughened Polystyrenes (TPS))
Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymers
ABS Plastics
16.8.1 Production of ABS materials
16.8.2 Processing of ABS materials
Miscellaneous Rubber-modified Styrene- Acrylonitrile
and Related Copolymers
Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers
Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymers
Miscellaneous Polymers and Copolymers
Stereoregular Polystyrene
16.13.1 Syndiotactic polystyrene
Properties and applications of ABS plastics
Contents xi
16.14 Processing of Polystyrene
16.15 Expanded Polystyrene
16.15.1 Structural foams
16.16 Oriented Polystyrene
16.17 Applications
17 Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Vinylidene Chloride Polymers and Copolymers
17.2.1
17.2.2 Vinylidene chloride-acrylonitrile copolymers
Properties and applications of vinylidene chloride-vinyl
chloride copolymers
17.3 Coumarone-Indene resins
17.4 Poly(viny1 carbazole)
17.5 Poly(viny1 pyrrolidone)
17.6 Poly(viny1 ethers)
17.7 Other Vinyl Polymers
18 Polyamides and Polyimides
Polyamides: Introduction
Intermediates for Aliphatic Polyamides
18.2.1 Adipic acid
18.2.2 Hexamethylenediamine
18.2.4 Caprolactam
18.2.5 w-Aminoundecanoic acid
18.2.6 w-Aminoenanthic acid
18.2.7 Dodecanelactam
Polymerisation of Aliphatic Polyamides
18.3.2 Nylon 6
18.3.3 Nylon 11
18.3.4 Nylon 12
18.3.5 Nylon 7
Structure and Properties of Aliphatic Polyamides
General Properties of the Nylons
Additives
Glass-filled Nylons
Processing of the Nylons
Applications
Polyamides of Enhanced Solubility
Other Aliphatic Polyamides
Aromatic Polyamides
18.12.1 Glass-clear polyamides
18.12.2 Crystalline aromatic polyamides
Sebacic acid and Azelaic acid
Nylons 46, 66, 69, 610 and 612
Comparison of nylons 6 and 66 in glass-filled compositions
18.12.2.1 Poly-rn-xylylene adipamide
18.12.2.2 Aromatic polyamide fibres
18.12.2.3 Polyphthalamide plastics
Polyimides
Modified Polyimides
18.14.1 Polyamide-imides
18.14.2 Polyetherimides
Elastomeric Polyamides
Polyesteramides- 528
xii Contents
19 Polyacetals and Related Materials
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Preparation of Formaldehyde
19.3 Acetal Resins
19.3.1 Polymerisation of formaldehyde
19.3.3 Properties of acetal resins
19.3.4 Processing
19.3.5 Additives
19.3.6 Acetal-polyurethane alloys
Polyethers from Glycols and Alkylene Oxides
19.5.1 Elastomeric polyethers
Structure and properties of acetal resins
Applications of the acetal polymers and copolymers
19.4 Miscellaneous Aldehyde Polymers
19.6 Oxetane Polymers
19.7 Polysulphides
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Production of Intermediates
20.3 Polymer Preparation
20 Polycarbonates
20.3.1 Ester exchange
20.3.2 Phosgenation process
Relation of Structure and Properties
20.4.1 Variations in commercial grades
20.5 General Properties
20.6 Processing Characteristics
20.10 Miscellaneous Carbonic Ester Polymers
Other Thermoplastics Containing p-Phenylene Groups
Applications of Bis-phenol A Polycarbonates
Alloys based on Bis-phenol A Polycarbonates
Polyester Carbonates and Block Copolymers
Introduction
Polyphenylenes
Pol y-p-xylylene
Poly(pheny1ene oxides) and Halogenated Derivatives
Alkyl Substituted Poly(pheny1ene oxides) including PPO
21.5.1 Structure and properties of
21.5.2
21.5.3
21.5.4 Styrenic PPOs
21.5.5 Processing of styrenic PPOs
21.5.6 Polyamide PPOs
21 57 Poly(2,6-dibromo-l,4-phenylene oxide)
Polyphenylene Sulphides
21.6.1 Amorphous polyarylene sulphides
Pol ysulphones
21.7.2 General properties of polysulphones
21.7.3 Processing of polysulphones
21.7.4 Applications
21.7.5 Blends based on polysulphones
Polyarylether Ketones
Phenoxy Resins
Linear Aromatic Polyesters
poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO)
Processing and application of PPO
Blends based in polyphenylene oxides
Properties and structure of polysulphones
Contents xiii
21.11 Polyhydantoin Resins
21.12 Poly(parabanic acids)
21.13 Summary
22 Cellulose Plastics
22.2 Cellulose Esters
Nature and Occurrence of Cellulose
22.2.1 Cellulose nitrate
22.2.2 Cellulose acetate
22.2.3 Other cellulose esters
22.3.1 Ethyl cellulose
22.3.2 Miscellaneous ethers
22.3 Cellulose Ethers
22.4 Regenerated Cellulose
22.5 Vulcanised Fibre
23 Phenolic Resins 635
23.1 Introduction 635
23.2 Raw Materials 635
23.2.1 Phenol 636
23.2.2 Other phenols 638
23.2.3 Aldehydes 639
23.3 Chemical Aspects 639
23.3.1 Novolaks 639
23.3.2 Resols 64 1
23.4 Resin Manufacture 643
23.5 Moulding Powders 645
23.5.1 Compounding ingredients 646
23.5.2 Compounding of phenol-formaldehyde moulding compositions 648
23.5.3 Processing characteristics 649
23.5.4 Properties of phenolic mouldings 652
23.5.5 Applications
23.6.1 The properties of phenolic laminates 656
23.6.2 Applications of phenolic laminates 65 8
23.7 Miscellaneous Applications 659
23.8 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives 662
23.9 Friedel-Crafts and Related Polymers 662
23.10 Phenolic Resin Fibres 666
23.11 Polybenzoxazines 666
24 Aminoplastics 668
24.1 Introduction 668
24.2 Urea-Formaldehyde Resins 669
24.2.1 Raw materials 669
24.2.2 Theories of resinification 670
24.2.3 U-F moulding materials 67 1
24.2.4 Adhesives and related uses 677
24.2.5 Foams and firelighters 679
24.2.6 Other applications 679
24.3.1 Melamine 680
24.3.2 Resinification 682
24.3.3 Moulding powders 684
24.3.4 Laminates containing melamine-formaldehyde resin 688
24.3.5 Miscellaneous applications 688
23.3.3 Hardening 641
23.6 Phenolic Laminates
24.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins
xiv Contents
24.4 Melamine-Phenolic Resins
24.5 Aniline-Formaldehyde Resins
24.6 Resins Containing Thiourea
25 Polyesters
Introduction
Unsaturated Polyester Laminating Resins
25.2.1 Selection of raw materials
25.2.2 Production of resins
25.2.3 Curing systems
25.2.4 Structure and properties
25.2.5 Polyester-glass fibre laminates
25.2.6 Water-extended polyesters
25.2.7 Allyl resins
Polyester Moulding Compositions
Fibre-forming and Film-forming Polyesters
Poly(ethy1ene terephthalate) Moulding Materials
25.5.1 Poly(ethy1ene naphthalate) (PEN)
Poly(buty1ene terephthalate)
Poly(trimethy1ene terephthalate)
Poly-( 1,4-~yclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalate(P) CT)
25.8.1 Poly-( 1,4-~yclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalateco-
isophthalate)
Highly Aromatic Linear Polyesters
25.9.1 Liquid crystal polyesters
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomers
Poly(pivalo1actone)
Polycaprolactones
Surface Coatings, Plasticisers and Rubbers
26 Epoxide Resins
26.1 Introduction
Preparation of Resins from Bis-phenol A
Curing of Glycidyl Ether Resins
26.3.1 Amine hardening systems
26.3.2 Acid hardening systems
26.3.3 Miscelfaneous hardener systems
26.3.4 Comparison of hardening systems
26.4.1 Miscellaneous glycidyl ether resins
26.4.2 Non-glycidyl ether epoxides
Diluents, Flexibilisers and other Additives
Structure and Properties of Cured Resins
26.4 Miscellaneous Epoxide Resins
26.7 Applications
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Isocyanates
27.4 Rubbers
27 Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanurates
Fibres and Crystalline Moulding Compounds
27.4.1 Cast polyurethane rubbers
27.4.2 Millable gums
27.4.3 Properties and applications of cross-linked polyurethane
rubbers
27.4.4 Thermoplastic polyurethane rubbers and Spandex fibres
27.5 Flexible Foams
27.5.1 One-shot polyester foams
27.5.2 Polyether prepolymers
Contents xv
27.5.3 Quasi-prepolymer polyether foams
27.5.4 Polyether one-shot foams
Properties and applications of flexible foams
Self-skinning foams and the RIM process
27.6 Rigid and Semi-rigid Foams
27.7 Coatings and Adhesives
27.8 Polyisocyanurates
27.9 Polycarbodi-imide Resins
27.10 Polyurethane-Acrylic Blends
27.1 1 Miscellaneous Isocyanate-Based Materials
28 Furan Resins
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Preparation of Intermediates
28.3 Resinification
28.5 Applications
Properties of the Cured Resins
29 Silicones and Other Heat-resisting Polymers
29.1 Introduction
29.1.1 Nomenclature
29.2.1 The Grignard method
29.2.2 The direct process
29.2.3 The olefin addition method
29.2.4 Sodium condensation method
29.2.5 Rearrangement of organochlorosilanes
General Methods of Preparation and Properties of Silicones
29.4.1 Preparation
29.4.2 General properties
29.4.3 Applications
29.5.1 Preparation
29.5.2 Properties
29.5.3 Applications
29.6.1 Dimethylsilicone rubbers
29.6.2 Modified polydimethylsiloxane rubbers
29.6.3 Compounding
29.6.4 Fabrication and cross-linking
29.6.5 Properties and applications
29.6.6 Liquid silicone rubbers
29.6.7 Polysiloxane-polyetherimide copolymers
Polymers for use at High Temperatures
29.7.1 Fluorine-containing polymers
29.7.2 Inorganic polymers
29.7.3 Cross-linked organic polymers
29.7.6 Co-ordination polymers
29.7.7 Summary
Nature of chemical bonds containing silicon
29.2 Preparation of Intermediates
29.3
29.4 Silicone Fluids
29.5 Silicone Resins
29.6 Silicone Rubbers
29.7
Linear polymers with p-phenylene groups and
other ring structures
Ladder polymers and spiro polymers
xvi Contents
30 Miscellaneous Plastics Materials
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Casein
30.2.1 Chemical nature
30.2.2 Isolation of casein from milk
30.2.3 Production of casein plastics
30.2.4 Properties of casein
30.2.5 Applications
30.3 Miscellaneous Protein Plastics
30.4 Derivatives of Natural Rubber
30.6 Shellac
Gutta Percha and Related Materials
30.6.1 Occurrence and preparation
30.6.2 Chemical composition
30.6.3 Properties
30.6.4 Applications
30.7.1 Composition and properties
30.7 Amber
30.8 Bituminous Plastics
3 1 Selected Functional Polymers
3 1.1 Introduction
3 1.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers
31.3.1 Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate copolymers (PHBV)
Intrinsically Electrically Conducting Polymers (ICPs)
Applications of thermoplastic elastomers
The future for thermoplastic elastomers
3 1.3 Degradable Plastics
The future for degradable plastics
32 Material Selection
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Establishing Operational Requirements
32.4 Material Data Sources
Economic Factors Affecting Material Choice
32.4.1 Computer-aided selection
A Simple Mechanistic Non-computer Selection System
A Simple Pathway-based Non-computer Selection System
Appendix
Index


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رابط تنزيل كتاب  Plastics Materials (7th Edition) SEVENTH EDITION

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Plastics Materials (7th Edition)   السبت 03 مارس 2012, 11:34 am

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Plastics Materials (7th Edition)
SEVENTH EDITION
J. A. Brydson
Former Head of the Department of Physical Sciences and Technology,
Polytechnic of North London (now known as the University of North London)



ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :
  
1 The Historical Development of Plastics Materials
1.1 Natural Plastics
1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid
1.5 Developments since 1939
1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics
1.7 The Market for Plastics
1.8 The Future for Plastics
1.3 1900-1930
The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics
2 The Chemical Nature of Plastics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Behaviour
2.3 Further Consideration of Addition Polymerisation
2.3.2 Ionic polymerisation
2.3.3 Ziegler-Natta and metallocene polymerisation
Elementary kinetics of free-radical addition polymerisation
2.4 Condensation Polymerisation
3 States of Aggregation in Polymers
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Linear Amorphous Polymers
3.3 Crystalline Polymers
3.3.1 Orientation and crystallisation
3.3.2 Liquid crystal polymers
Orientation in linear amorphous polymers
3.4 Cross-linked Structures
3.5 Polyblends
3.6 Summary
vi Contents
4 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Factors Affecting the Glass Transition Temperature
4.3 Factors Affecting the Ability to Crystallise
4.4 Factors Affecting the Crystalline Melting Point
4.5 Some Individual Properties
4.5.1 Melt viscosity
4.5.2 Yield strength and modulus
4.5.3 Density
4.5.4 Impact strength
5 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Chemical Bonds
5.3 Polymer Solubility
5.3.1 Plasticisers
5.3.2 Extenders
5.3.3 Determination of solubility parameter
5.3.4 Thermodynamics and solubility
Effects of Thermal, Photochemical and High-energy Radiation
5.4 Chemical Reactivity
5.6 Aging and Weathering
5.7 Diffusion and Permeability
5.8 Toxicity
5.9 Fire and Plastics
6 Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties
6.1 Introduction
6.4 Electronic Applications of Polymers
6.5 Electrically Conductive Polymers
6.6 Optical Properties
Appendix-Electrical Testing
Dielectric Constant, Power Factor and Structure
Some Quantitative Relationships of Dielectrics
7 Additives for Plastics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Fillers
7.2.1 Coupling agents
7.3 Plasticisers and Softeners
7.4 Lubricants and Flow Promoters
7.5 Anti-aging Additives
7.5.1 Antioxidants
7.5.2 Antiozonants
7.5.3 Stabilisers against dehydrochlorination
7.5.4 Ultraviolet absorbers and related materials
7.6 Flame Retarders
7.7 Colorants
7.8 Blowing Agents
7.9 Cross-linking Agents
7.10 Photodegradants
7.11 2-Oxazolines
Contents vii
8 Principles of the Processing of Plastics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Melt Processing of Thermoplastics
8.2.1 Hygroscopic behaviour
8.2.2 Granule characteristics
8.2.4 Thermal stability
8.2.5 Flow properties
8.2.5.1 Terminology
8.2.5.2 Effect of environmental and molecular factors
on viscous flow properties
8.2.5.3 Flow in an injection mould
8.2.5.4 Elastic effects in polymer melts
8.2.6 Thermal properties affecting cooling
8.2.7 Crystallisation
8.2.8 Orientation and shrinkage
Melt Processing of Thermosetting Plastics
Processing in the Rubbery State
Solution, Suspension and Casting Processes
Thermal properties influencing polymer melting
8.6 Summary
9 Principles of Product Design
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Rigidity of Plastics Materials
9.2.1 The assessment of maximum service temperature
9.2.1.1 Assessment of thermal stability
9.2.1.2 Assessment of softening point
The assessment of impact strength
9.3 Toughness
9.4 Stress-Strain-Time Behaviour
9.4.1 The WLF equations
9.4.2 Creep curves
9.5 Recovery from Deformation
9.6 Distortion, Voids and Frozen-in Stress
9.7 Conclusions
Practical assessment of long-term behaviour
10 Polyethylene
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Preparation of Monomer
10.3 Polymerisation
10.3.1 High-pressure polymerisation
10.3.2 Ziegler processes
10.3.3 The Phillips process
10.3.4 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) process
10.3.5 Processes for making linear low-density polyethylene and
metallocene polyethylene
Structure and Properties of Polyethylene
10.5.1 Mechanical properties
10.5.2 Thermal properties
10.5.3 Chemical properties
10.5.4 Electrical properties
10.5.6 Properties of metallocene-catalysed polyethylenes
10.5 Properties of Polyethylene
Properties of LLDPE and VLDPE
viii Contents
10.6 Additives
10.7 Processing
10.9 Cross-linked Polyethylene
10.10 Chlorinated Polyethylene
10.11 Applications
Polyethylenes of Low and High Molecular Weight
11 Aliphatic Polyolefins other than Polyethylene, and Diene Rubbers
11.1 Polypropylene
11.1.1 Preparation of polypropylene
11.1.3 Properties of isotactic polypropylene
11.1.4 Additives for isotactic polypropylene
11.1.5 Processing characteristics
11.1.6 Applications
11.1.7 Atactic and syndiotactic polypropylene
11.1.8 Chlorinated polypropylene
11.2.1 Atactic polybut- 1-ene
Structure and properties of polypropylene
11.2 Polybut-1-ene
11.3 Polyisobutylene
11.4 Poly-(4-methylpent-l-ene)
11.4.1 Structure and properties
11.4.2 General properties
11.4.3 Processing
11.4.4 Applications
11.5 Other Aliphatic Olefin Homopolymers
11.6 Copolymers Containing Ethylene
1 1.6.1
1 1.6.2 Ethylene-cyclo-olefin copolymers
11.7 Diene Rubbers
Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers (ECO)
11.7.1 Natural rubber
11.7.2 Synthetic polyisoprene (IR)
11.7.3 Polybutadiene
11.7.4 Styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR)
11.7.4.1 ‘High styrene resins’
11.7.5 Nitrile rubber (NBR)
11.7.6 Chloroprene rubbers (CR)
11.7.7 Butadiene-pentadiene rubbers
11.8 Thermoplastic Diene Rubbers
11.9 Aliphatic Olefin Rubbers
11.10 Rubbery Cyclo-olefin (Cyclo-alkene) Polymers
11.9.1 Thermoplastic polyolefin rubbers
1 1.10.1 Aliphatic polyalkenamers
11.10.2 Polynorbomene
11.10.3 Chlorine-containing copolymers
11.11 1,2-Polybutadiene
11 .I2 Ethylene-styrene copolymers
11.13 Other elastomers
12 Vinyl Chloride Polymers
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Preparation of Vinyl Chloride
12.3 Polymerisation
12.4 Structure of Poly(viny1 chloride)
12.4.1 Characterisation of commercial polymers
Compounding Ingredients
12.5.1 Stabilisers
12.5.2 Plasticisers
12.5.3 Extenders
12.5.4 Lubricants
12.5.5 Fillers
12.5.6 Pigments
12.5.7
12.5.8 Miscellaneous additives
12.5.9 Formulations
Properties of PVC Compounds
Processing
12.7.1 Plasticised PVC
12.7.2 Unplasticised PVC
12.7.3 Pastes
12.7.4 Copolymers
12.7.5 Latices
Applications
Miscellaneous Products
12.9.1 Crystalline PVC
12.9.2 Chlorinated PVC
12.9.3 Graft polymers based on PVC
12.9.4 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers
12.9.5 Vinyl chloride-N-cyclohexylmaleimide copolymers
Polymeric impact modifiers and processing aids
13 Fluorine-containing Polymers
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Polytetrafluoroethylene
13.2. I Preparation of monomer
13.2.2 Polymerisation
13.2.3 Structure and properties
13.2.4 General properties
13.2.5 Processing
13.2.6 Additives
13.2.7 Applications
13.3 Tetrafluoroethylene-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymers
1 3.4 Tetrafluoroethylene-Ethylene Copolymers (ETFE)
13.5 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers (PCTFE)
13.6 Poly(viny1 fluoride) (PVF)
13.7 Poly(viny1idene fluoride)
1 3.9 Hexafluoroisobutylene-Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers
13.10 Fluorine-containing Rubbers
13.11 Thermoplastic fluoroelastomers
13.12 Miscellaneous Fluoropolymers
Poly(viny1 acetate) and its Derivatives
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Poly(viny1 acetate)
and Copolymers with Ethylene (ECTFE)
Other Plastics Materials Containing Tetrafluoroethylene
14.2.1 Preparation of the monomer
1 4.2.2 Polymerisation
14.2.3 Properties and uses
14.3.1 Structure and properties
14.3.2 Applications
14.3 Poly(viny1 alcohol)
Contents ix
x Contents
14.4 The Poly(viny1 acetals)
14.4.1 Poly(viny1 formal)
14.4.2 Poly(viny1 acetal)
14.4.3 Poly(viny1 butyral)
14.5 Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers
14.6 Poly(viny1 cinnamate)
14.7 Other Organic Vinyl Ester Polymers
15 Acrylic Plastics
Introduction
Poly(methy1 methacrylate)
15.2.1 Preparation of monomer
15.2.2 Polymerisation
15.2.3 Structure and properties
15.2.5 Additives
15.2.6 Processing
15.2.7 Applications
Methyl Methacrylate Polymers with Enhanced Impact
Resistance and Softening Point
Nitrile Resins
Acrylate Rubbers
Thermosetting Acrylic Polymers
Acrylic Adhesives
Hydrophilic Polymers
Poly(methacry1imide)
Miscellaneous Methacrylate and Chloroacrylate Polymers
and Copolymers
Other Acrylic Polymers
General properties of poly(methy1 methacrylate)
16 Plastics Based on Styrene
Introduction
Preparation of the Monomer
16.2.1 Laboratory preparation
16.2.2 Commercial preparation
Polymerisation
16.3.1 Mass polymerisation
16.3.2 Solution polymerisation
16.3.3 Suspension polymerisation
16.3.4 Emulsion polymerisation
16.3.5 Grades available
Properties and Structure of Polystyrene
General Properties
High-impact Polystyrenes (HIPS) (Toughened Polystyrenes (TPS))
Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymers
ABS Plastics
16.8.1 Production of ABS materials
16.8.2 Processing of ABS materials
Miscellaneous Rubber-modified Styrene- Acrylonitrile
and Related Copolymers
Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers
Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymers
Miscellaneous Polymers and Copolymers
Stereoregular Polystyrene
16.13.1 Syndiotactic polystyrene
Properties and applications of ABS plastics
Contents xi
16.14 Processing of Polystyrene
16.15 Expanded Polystyrene
16.15.1 Structural foams
16.16 Oriented Polystyrene
16.17 Applications
17 Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Vinylidene Chloride Polymers and Copolymers
17.2.1
17.2.2 Vinylidene chloride-acrylonitrile copolymers
Properties and applications of vinylidene chloride-vinyl
chloride copolymers
17.3 Coumarone-Indene resins
17.4 Poly(viny1 carbazole)
17.5 Poly(viny1 pyrrolidone)
17.6 Poly(viny1 ethers)
17.7 Other Vinyl Polymers
18 Polyamides and Polyimides
Polyamides: Introduction
Intermediates for Aliphatic Polyamides
18.2.1 Adipic acid
18.2.2 Hexamethylenediamine
18.2.4 Caprolactam
18.2.5 w-Aminoundecanoic acid
18.2.6 w-Aminoenanthic acid
18.2.7 Dodecanelactam
Polymerisation of Aliphatic Polyamides
18.3.2 Nylon 6
18.3.3 Nylon 11
18.3.4 Nylon 12
18.3.5 Nylon 7
Structure and Properties of Aliphatic Polyamides
General Properties of the Nylons
Additives
Glass-filled Nylons
Processing of the Nylons
Applications
Polyamides of Enhanced Solubility
Other Aliphatic Polyamides
Aromatic Polyamides
18.12.1 Glass-clear polyamides
18.12.2 Crystalline aromatic polyamides
Sebacic acid and Azelaic acid
Nylons 46, 66, 69, 610 and 612
Comparison of nylons 6 and 66 in glass-filled compositions
18.12.2.1 Poly-rn-xylylene adipamide
18.12.2.2 Aromatic polyamide fibres
18.12.2.3 Polyphthalamide plastics
Polyimides
Modified Polyimides
18.14.1 Polyamide-imides
18.14.2 Polyetherimides
Elastomeric Polyamides
Polyesteramides- 528
xii Contents
19 Polyacetals and Related Materials
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Preparation of Formaldehyde
19.3 Acetal Resins
19.3.1 Polymerisation of formaldehyde
19.3.3 Properties of acetal resins
19.3.4 Processing
19.3.5 Additives
19.3.6 Acetal-polyurethane alloys
Polyethers from Glycols and Alkylene Oxides
19.5.1 Elastomeric polyethers
Structure and properties of acetal resins
Applications of the acetal polymers and copolymers
19.4 Miscellaneous Aldehyde Polymers
19.6 Oxetane Polymers
19.7 Polysulphides
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Production of Intermediates
20.3 Polymer Preparation
20 Polycarbonates
20.3.1 Ester exchange
20.3.2 Phosgenation process
Relation of Structure and Properties
20.4.1 Variations in commercial grades
20.5 General Properties
20.6 Processing Characteristics
20.10 Miscellaneous Carbonic Ester Polymers
Other Thermoplastics Containing p-Phenylene Groups
Applications of Bis-phenol A Polycarbonates
Alloys based on Bis-phenol A Polycarbonates
Polyester Carbonates and Block Copolymers
Introduction
Polyphenylenes
Pol y-p-xylylene
Poly(pheny1ene oxides) and Halogenated Derivatives
Alkyl Substituted Poly(pheny1ene oxides) including PPO
21.5.1 Structure and properties of
21.5.2
21.5.3
21.5.4 Styrenic PPOs
21.5.5 Processing of styrenic PPOs
21.5.6 Polyamide PPOs
21 57 Poly(2,6-dibromo-l,4-phenylene oxide)
Polyphenylene Sulphides
21.6.1 Amorphous polyarylene sulphides
Pol ysulphones
21.7.2 General properties of polysulphones
21.7.3 Processing of polysulphones
21.7.4 Applications
21.7.5 Blends based on polysulphones
Polyarylether Ketones
Phenoxy Resins
Linear Aromatic Polyesters
poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO)
Processing and application of PPO
Blends based in polyphenylene oxides
Properties and structure of polysulphones
Contents xiii
21.11 Polyhydantoin Resins
21.12 Poly(parabanic acids)
21.13 Summary
22 Cellulose Plastics
22.2 Cellulose Esters
Nature and Occurrence of Cellulose
22.2.1 Cellulose nitrate
22.2.2 Cellulose acetate
22.2.3 Other cellulose esters
22.3.1 Ethyl cellulose
22.3.2 Miscellaneous ethers
22.3 Cellulose Ethers
22.4 Regenerated Cellulose
22.5 Vulcanised Fibre
23 Phenolic Resins 635
23.1 Introduction 635
23.2 Raw Materials 635
23.2.1 Phenol 636
23.2.2 Other phenols 638
23.2.3 Aldehydes 639
23.3 Chemical Aspects 639
23.3.1 Novolaks 639
23.3.2 Resols 64 1
23.4 Resin Manufacture 643
23.5 Moulding Powders 645
23.5.1 Compounding ingredients 646
23.5.2 Compounding of phenol-formaldehyde moulding compositions 648
23.5.3 Processing characteristics 649
23.5.4 Properties of phenolic mouldings 652
23.5.5 Applications
23.6.1 The properties of phenolic laminates 656
23.6.2 Applications of phenolic laminates 65 8
23.7 Miscellaneous Applications 659
23.8 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives 662
23.9 Friedel-Crafts and Related Polymers 662
23.10 Phenolic Resin Fibres 666
23.11 Polybenzoxazines 666
24 Aminoplastics 668
24.1 Introduction 668
24.2 Urea-Formaldehyde Resins 669
24.2.1 Raw materials 669
24.2.2 Theories of resinification 670
24.2.3 U-F moulding materials 67 1
24.2.4 Adhesives and related uses 677
24.2.5 Foams and firelighters 679
24.2.6 Other applications 679
24.3.1 Melamine 680
24.3.2 Resinification 682
24.3.3 Moulding powders 684
24.3.4 Laminates containing melamine-formaldehyde resin 688
24.3.5 Miscellaneous applications 688
23.3.3 Hardening 641
23.6 Phenolic Laminates
24.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins
xiv Contents
24.4 Melamine-Phenolic Resins
24.5 Aniline-Formaldehyde Resins
24.6 Resins Containing Thiourea
25 Polyesters
Introduction
Unsaturated Polyester Laminating Resins
25.2.1 Selection of raw materials
25.2.2 Production of resins
25.2.3 Curing systems
25.2.4 Structure and properties
25.2.5 Polyester-glass fibre laminates
25.2.6 Water-extended polyesters
25.2.7 Allyl resins
Polyester Moulding Compositions
Fibre-forming and Film-forming Polyesters
Poly(ethy1ene terephthalate) Moulding Materials
25.5.1 Poly(ethy1ene naphthalate) (PEN)
Poly(buty1ene terephthalate)
Poly(trimethy1ene terephthalate)
Poly-( 1,4-~yclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalate(P) CT)
25.8.1 Poly-( 1,4-~yclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalateco-
isophthalate)
Highly Aromatic Linear Polyesters
25.9.1 Liquid crystal polyesters
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomers
Poly(pivalo1actone)
Polycaprolactones
Surface Coatings, Plasticisers and Rubbers
26 Epoxide Resins
26.1 Introduction
Preparation of Resins from Bis-phenol A
Curing of Glycidyl Ether Resins
26.3.1 Amine hardening systems
26.3.2 Acid hardening systems
26.3.3 Miscelfaneous hardener systems
26.3.4 Comparison of hardening systems
26.4.1 Miscellaneous glycidyl ether resins
26.4.2 Non-glycidyl ether epoxides
Diluents, Flexibilisers and other Additives
Structure and Properties of Cured Resins
26.4 Miscellaneous Epoxide Resins
26.7 Applications
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Isocyanates
27.4 Rubbers
27 Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanurates
Fibres and Crystalline Moulding Compounds
27.4.1 Cast polyurethane rubbers
27.4.2 Millable gums
27.4.3 Properties and applications of cross-linked polyurethane
rubbers
27.4.4 Thermoplastic polyurethane rubbers and Spandex fibres
27.5 Flexible Foams
27.5.1 One-shot polyester foams
27.5.2 Polyether prepolymers
Contents xv
27.5.3 Quasi-prepolymer polyether foams
27.5.4 Polyether one-shot foams
Properties and applications of flexible foams
Self-skinning foams and the RIM process
27.6 Rigid and Semi-rigid Foams
27.7 Coatings and Adhesives
27.8 Polyisocyanurates
27.9 Polycarbodi-imide Resins
27.10 Polyurethane-Acrylic Blends
27.1 1 Miscellaneous Isocyanate-Based Materials
28 Furan Resins
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Preparation of Intermediates
28.3 Resinification
28.5 Applications
Properties of the Cured Resins
29 Silicones and Other Heat-resisting Polymers
29.1 Introduction
29.1.1 Nomenclature
29.2.1 The Grignard method
29.2.2 The direct process
29.2.3 The olefin addition method
29.2.4 Sodium condensation method
29.2.5 Rearrangement of organochlorosilanes
General Methods of Preparation and Properties of Silicones
29.4.1 Preparation
29.4.2 General properties
29.4.3 Applications
29.5.1 Preparation
29.5.2 Properties
29.5.3 Applications
29.6.1 Dimethylsilicone rubbers
29.6.2 Modified polydimethylsiloxane rubbers
29.6.3 Compounding
29.6.4 Fabrication and cross-linking
29.6.5 Properties and applications
29.6.6 Liquid silicone rubbers
29.6.7 Polysiloxane-polyetherimide copolymers
Polymers for use at High Temperatures
29.7.1 Fluorine-containing polymers
29.7.2 Inorganic polymers
29.7.3 Cross-linked organic polymers
29.7.6 Co-ordination polymers
29.7.7 Summary
Nature of chemical bonds containing silicon
29.2 Preparation of Intermediates
29.3
29.4 Silicone Fluids
29.5 Silicone Resins
29.6 Silicone Rubbers
29.7
Linear polymers with p-phenylene groups and
other ring structures
Ladder polymers and spiro polymers
xvi Contents
30 Miscellaneous Plastics Materials
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Casein
30.2.1 Chemical nature
30.2.2 Isolation of casein from milk
30.2.3 Production of casein plastics
30.2.4 Properties of casein
30.2.5 Applications
30.3 Miscellaneous Protein Plastics
30.4 Derivatives of Natural Rubber
30.6 Shellac
Gutta Percha and Related Materials
30.6.1 Occurrence and preparation
30.6.2 Chemical composition
30.6.3 Properties
30.6.4 Applications
30.7.1 Composition and properties
30.7 Amber
30.8 Bituminous Plastics
3 1 Selected Functional Polymers
3 1.1 Introduction
3 1.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers
31.3.1 Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate copolymers (PHBV)
Intrinsically Electrically Conducting Polymers (ICPs)
Applications of thermoplastic elastomers
The future for thermoplastic elastomers
3 1.3 Degradable Plastics
The future for degradable plastics
32 Material Selection
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Establishing Operational Requirements
32.4 Material Data Sources
Economic Factors Affecting Material Choice
32.4.1 Computer-aided selection
A Simple Mechanistic Non-computer Selection System
A Simple Pathway-based Non-computer Selection System
Appendix
Index


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رابط تنزيل كتاب  Plastics Materials (7th Edition) SEVENTH EDITION

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كتاب Plastics Materials (7th Edition)

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