كتاب Composite Materials Handbook - Volume 5
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Composite Materials Handbook - Volume 5

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد المساهمات : 14273
التقييم : 22960
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Composite Materials Handbook - Volume 5   الأحد 13 نوفمبر 2011, 12:13 am





أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Composite Materials Handbook - Volume 5

ويتناول العناوين الآتية :
PART A. INTRODUCTION AND GUIDELINES ........................................................................................... 2
1 MIL-17 GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES......................................................................................... 2
1.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.1 Objectives of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Working Groups ............................. 2
1.1.1.1 Objectives and tasks for Data Review Working Group ............................. 3
1.1.1.2 Vision, goals and objectives for Materials and Processes
Working Group........................................................................................... 3
1.1.1.3 Vision, goals and objectives for Structural Analysis & Design
Codes Working Group ............................................................................... 4
1.1.1.4 Vision, goals and objectives for Testing Working Group ........................... 4
1.2 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................................. 4
1.3 SCOPE ...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 Part A: Introduction and Guidelines............................................................................ 6
1.3.2 Part B: Design Supportability ..................................................................................... 6
1.3.3 Part C: Testing............................................................................................................ 6
1.3.4 Part D: Data Requirements and Data Sets ................................................................ 6
1.4 USE OF THE DOCUMENT AND LIMITATIONS........................................................................ 7
1.4.1 Source of information .................................................................................................. 7
1.4.2 Use of data and guidelines in applications.................................................................. 7
1.4.3 Strength properties and allowables terminology ......................................................... 7
1.4.4 Use of References....................................................................................................... 8
1.4.5 Use of tradenames and product names...................................................................... 8
1.4.6 Toxicity, health hazards, and safety ............................................................................ 8
1.4.7 Ozone depleting chemicals ......................................................................................... 8
1.5 APPROVAL PROCEDURES...................................................................................................... 8
1.6 SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYSTEMS OF UNITS..................................................... 9
1.6.1 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 10
1.6.1.1 Constituent properties ............................................................................. 14
1.6.1.2 Laminae and laminates ........................................................................... 15
1.6.1.3 Subscripts ................................................................................................ 16
1.6.1.4 Superscripts............................................................................................. 17
1.6.1.5 Acronyms ................................................................................................. 17
1.6.2 System of units.......................................................................................................... 20
1.7 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................... 20
2 INTRODUCTION, HISTORY AND OVERVIEW ................................................................................. 43
2.1 HISTORY AND OVERVIEW.................................................................................................... 43
2.2 APPLICATIONS ....................................................................................................................... 44
3 PROCESSING, CHARACTERIZATION AND MANUFACTURING .................................................... 47
3.1 CMC SYSTEMS, PROCESSING, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS................................ 47
3.1.1 CMC processing methods......................................................................................... 47
MIL-HDBK-17-5
Volume 5, Foreword / Table of Contents
iv
3.1.1.1 Chemical vapor infiltration CMCs ............................................................ 47
3.1.1.1.1 CVI fabrication technique........................................................... 47
3.1.1.1.2 Typical properties for CVI CFCCs .............................................. 48
3.1.1.1.3 Typical applications for CVI CFCCs........................................... 50
3.1.1.2 Directed metal oxidation (DIMOX™) ....................................................... 50
3.1.1.2.1 Basic processing procedures for DIMOX™............................... 50
3.1.1.2.2 Typical properties of DIMOX™................................................... 51
3.1.1.2.3 Typical applications for DIMOX™.............................................. 51
3.1.1.3 Polymer derived ceramics ....................................................................... 51
3.1.1.3.1 Introduction................................................................................. 51
3.1.1.3.2 Fabrication.................................................................................. 52
3.1.1.4 Carbon-carbon composites ..................................................................... 55
3.1.1.5 Oxide systems –sinter/hot press ............................................................. 56
3.1.1.6 Sol-gel processing ................................................................................... 56
3.1.1.6.1 Introduction................................................................................. 56
3.1.1.6.2 Single oxide compositions.......................................................... 57
3.1.1.6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel processing............... 57
3.1.1.6.4 Drying control agents and fillers................................................. 59
3.1.1.6.5 Sol-gel processing of 2-D structures.......................................... 60
3.1.1.6.6 Sol-gel processing of 3-D structures.......................................... 60
3.1.1.6.7 Summary.................................................................................... 61
3.1.1.7 Melt infiltration.......................................................................................... 61
3.1.1.7.1 Resin infiltration, pyrolysis, and reaction.................................... 61
3.1.1.7.2 Slurry casting.............................................................................. 62
3.1.1.8 Reaction processing ................................................................................ 62
3.1.1.9 Fibrous monoliths (FMs).......................................................................... 63
3.1.1.9.1 Introduction................................................................................. 63
3.1.1.9.2 Macrostructure of fibrous monoliths ........................................... 64
3.1.1.9.3 Mechanical properties of fibrous monoliths................................ 65
3.1.1.9.4 Thermal properties of fibrous monoliths..................................... 66
3.1.1.9.5 Applications for fibrous monoliths .............................................. 67
3.1.1.10 Hybrid systems ...................................................................................... 67
3.2 FIBER/REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY................................................. 67
3.2.1 Introduction – the role and function of reinforcements in CMCs............................... 67
3.2.2 Continuous fibers ...................................................................................................... 67
3.2.2.1 Oxide fibers.............................................................................................. 67
3.2.2.2 SiC monofilaments................................................................................... 70
3.2.2.3 Small diameter SiC-based fibers ............................................................. 72
3.2.2.4 Carbon fibers ........................................................................................... 73
3.2.2.4.1 Introduction and applications ..................................................... 73
3.2.2.4.2 Structure and general properties of carbon fibers...................... 75
3.2.2.4.3 Fabrication of carbon fibers........................................................ 76
3.2.2.4.4 Availability and sources of carbon fibers.................................... 79
3.2.2.4.5 Specific properties of carbon fibers............................................ 79
3.2.3 High temperature properties of continuous ceramic fibers ....................................... 82
3.2.3.1 Carbon fibers ........................................................................................... 84
3.2.4 Discontinuous reinforcements – whiskers, particulates, and in-situ.......................... 84
3.3 INTERPHASE/INTERFACE TECHNOLOGY AND APPROACHES........................................ 84
3.3.1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 84
3.3.1.1 The roles and requirements for fiber interfaces and coatings ................. 86
3.3.1.2 Fabrication of fiber interface coatings ..................................................... 87
3.3.2 Interphase composition ............................................................................................. 88
3.3.2.1 Carbon ..................................................................................................... 88
3.3.2.2 Boron nitride ............................................................................................ 89
3.3.2.3 Oxide ....................................................................................................... 89
3.3.2.3.1 Non-layered oxide interfaces ..................................................... 89
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Volume 5, Foreword / Table of Contents
v
3.3.2.3.2 Layered oxide interfaces............................................................ 90
3.3.2.3.3 Porous matrices and porous/fugitive coatings ........................... 90
3.3.2.3.3.1 Porous matrices .............................................................. 90
3.3.2.3.3.2 Porous Coatings.............................................................. 91
3.3.2.3.3.3 Fugitive Interfaces ........................................................... 91
3.3.3 Other ......................................................................................................................... 92
3.4 FABRICATION AND FORMING OF FIBER ARCHITECTURES ............................................. 92
3.4.1 General...................................................................................................................... 92
3.4.2 Fiber architectures..................................................................................................... 92
3.4.2.1 Uniweaves ............................................................................................... 92
3.4.2.2 2-D woven architectures.......................................................................... 93
3.4.2.3 3-D architectures ..................................................................................... 94
3.4.2.3.1 3-D polar architectures............................................................... 94
3.4.2.3.2 3-D orthogonal architectures...................................................... 94
3.4.2.3.3 3-D angle interlock architectures ............................................... 94
3.4.2.4 2-D braided architectures ........................................................................ 95
3.4.2.5 3-D braided architectures ........................................................................ 95
3.4.3 Fabric weave and braid manufacturers..................................................................... 95
3.5 EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS .................................................................................. 96
3.5.1 External coating functions ......................................................................................... 96
3.5.1.1 Environmental protection ......................................................................... 96
3.5.1.2 Thermal management.............................................................................. 96
3.5.1.3 Wear and abrasion .................................................................................. 96
3.5.1.4 Signature control...................................................................................... 96
3.5.1.5 Aerodynamic surface control ................................................................... 96
3.5.2 Compositions and method of fabrication................................................................... 96
3.5.2.1 Compositions and structure..................................................................... 96
3.5.2.1.1 Oxide compositions.................................................................... 96
3.5.2.1.2 Non-oxide compositions............................................................. 96
3.5.2.1.3 Multilayer coatings ..................................................................... 96
3.5.2.1.4 Particulate composite coatings .................................................. 96
3.5.2.2 Methods of fabrication ............................................................................. 96
3.5.2.2.1 Chemical vapor deposition......................................................... 97
3.5.2.2.2 Thermal spray ............................................................................ 97
3.5.2.2.3 Physical vapor deposition .......................................................... 97
3.5.2.2.4 Sinter/glaze coatings.................................................................. 97
3.5.2.2.5 Diffusion and reaction sintering.................................................. 97
3.5.3 Engineering considerations....................................................................................... 97
3.5.3.1 Thermodynamic compatibility .................................................................. 97
3.5.3.2 Coating process compatibility.................................................................. 97
3.5.3.3 Mechanical compatibility.......................................................................... 97
3.5.3.3.1 Thermal expansion match.......................................................... 97
3.5.3.3.2 Coating strength ......................................................................... 97
3.5.3.3.3 Coating adhesion ....................................................................... 97
3.5.3.3.4 Strain accommodation................................................................ 97
3.5.3.3.5 Residual stresses....................................................................... 97
3.5.3.4 Component geometry coatability ............................................................. 98
3.5.3.5 Environmental stability of coating ............................................................ 98
3.5.4 Examples of external coatings for CMCs.................................................................. 98
3.6 CHARACTERIZATION METHODS (CHEMICAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL) ..................... 98
3.6.1 Bulk composite .......................................................................................................... 98
3.6.1.1 Composition............................................................................................. 98
3.6.1.2 Density..................................................................................................... 98
3.6.1.3 Porosity.................................................................................................... 98
3.6.1.4 Microstructure.......................................................................................... 98
3.6.1.5 Defects..................................................................................................... 98
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3.6.1.6 Other physical.......................................................................................... 98
3.6.2 Fibers/reinforcement ................................................................................................. 98
3.6.2.1 Composition............................................................................................. 98
3.6.2.2 Density..................................................................................................... 98
3.6.2.3 Porosity.................................................................................................... 99
3.6.2.4 Microstructure.......................................................................................... 99
3.6.2.5 Defects..................................................................................................... 99
3.6.2.6 Sizing ....................................................................................................... 99
3.6.2.7 Slipping .................................................................................................... 99
3.6.2.8 Other physical.......................................................................................... 99
3.6.3 Matrices..................................................................................................................... 99
3.6.3.1 Composition............................................................................................. 99
3.6.3.2 Density..................................................................................................... 99
3.6.3.3 Porosity.................................................................................................... 99
3.6.3.4 Microstructure.......................................................................................... 99
3.6.3.5 Defects..................................................................................................... 99
3.6.3.6 Other physical.......................................................................................... 99
3.6.4 Interfaces................................................................................................................. 100
3.6.4.1 Composition/chemical phase................................................................. 100
3.7 NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION METHODS FOR CMC (DEFECT
CHARACTERIZATION) .................................................................................................. 100
3.7.1 Needs and requirements......................................................................................... 100
3.7.2 Cost ......................................................................................................................... 101
3.7.3 Standards ................................................................................................................ 101
3.7.4 Current methods and status.................................................................................... 102
3.7.4.1 Porosity.................................................................................................. 102
3.7.4.1.1 High sensitivity thermal imaging............................................... 102
3.7.4.1.1.1 Status............................................................................. 102
3.7.4.1.2 Ultrasonics with image processing........................................... 103
3.7.4.1.2.1 Status............................................................................. 103
3.7.4.1.3 Impact acoustic resonance (“The Ping Test”) .......................... 104
3.7.4.1.3.1 Status............................................................................. 104
3.7.4.2 Density................................................................................................... 104
3.7.4.2.1 X-ray imaging ........................................................................... 104
3.7.4.2.1.1 X-ray radiography.......................................................... 104
3.7.4.2.1.2 X-ray computed tomography......................................... 105
3.7.4.2.2 Ultrasonics with image processing........................................... 106
3.7.4.3 Required thermal properties .................................................................. 106
3.7.4.4 Defect detection..................................................................................... 106
3.7.4.4.1 Delaminations .......................................................................... 106
3.7.4.4.2 Degree and extent of voids ...................................................... 107
3.7.4.4.3 Missing plys.............................................................................. 107
3.7.4.4.4 Ply drop-offs ............................................................................. 107
3.7.4.4.5 Machining induced damage ..................................................... 107
3.7.4.5 In-service inspection (ISI) by NDE/NDC................................................ 107
3.7.4.5.1 Fiber-matrix interface degradation ........................................... 107
3.7.4.5.2 Foreign object damage (FOD) and delaminations ................... 108
3.7.5 Developing methods................................................................................................ 108
3.8 QUALITY CONTROL OF STARTING MATERIALS............................................................... 108
3.9 MACHINING .......................................................................................................................... 108
4 QUALITY CONTROL OF FINAL PRODUCTS ................................................................................. 108
4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 108
4.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE ........................................................................................................ 108
4.3 MATERIAL PROPERTY VERIFICATION .............................................................................. 108
4.4 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL ................................................................................... 108
MIL-HDBK-17-5
Volume 5, Foreword / Table of Contents
vii
5 APPLICATIONS, CASE HISTORIES AND LESSONS LEARNS...................................................... 108
PART B. DESIGN AND SUPPORTABILITY .............................................................................................114
6 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................114
6.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................114
6.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................................................114
6.2.1 CMC design guidelines ............................................................................................114
6.2.2 Status of CMC design systems ................................................................................114
6.2.3 CMC component design and development..............................................................114
6.2.4 Design allowables ....................................................................................................114
6.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................................114
6.3.1 Static or creep loads - mechanical, thermal, stress/creep rupture, hot
streaks...................................................................................................................114
6.3.2 Low cycle fatigue......................................................................................................114
6.3.3 High cycle fatigue.....................................................................................................114
6.3.4 Thermal cycling ........................................................................................................114
6.3.5 Thermo-mechanical fatigue......................................................................................114
6.4 DESIGN CRITERIA ................................................................................................................115
6.4.1 Durability requirements ............................................................................................115
6.4.2 Damage tolerance....................................................................................................115
6.5 DATA REQUIREMENTS.........................................................................................................115
6.5.1 Killer tests.................................................................................................................115
6.5.1.1 Environmental conditioning and pre-cracking ........................................115
6.5.1.2 Loads ......................................................................................................115
6.5.1.3 Step temperature creep at constant stress.............................................115
6.5.1.4 Step stress creep test at constant temperature......................................115
6.5.1.5 Low cycle fatigue test .............................................................................115
6.5.1.6 High cycle fatigue test ............................................................................115
6.5.2 Configuration shaped coupons ................................................................................115
6.5.3 Composite “T” subelements with interlaminar cracks ..............................................115
6.6 ATTACHMENTS......................................................................................................................116
6.6.1 Thermally free attachment designs ..........................................................................116
6.6.2 Thermally free curled liner........................................................................................116
6.6.3 Thermally free flat liner.............................................................................................116
6.6.4 Rib-stiffened liners....................................................................................................116
6.6.5 Composite fastener design ......................................................................................116
7 SUPPORTABILITY ............................................................................................................................116
7.1 INTRODUCTION AND TERMINOLOGY................................................................................116
7.2 SUPPORTABILITY ELEMENTS.............................................................................................116
7.2.1 System engineering and integration.........................................................................116
7.2.2 Joining ......................................................................................................................116
7.2.3 Inspectability.............................................................................................................116
7.2.4 Repairability..............................................................................................................116
7.2.5 Maintainability...........................................................................................................116
7.2.6 Environmental compliance .......................................................................................117
7.2.7 Support implementation ...........................................................................................117
7.2.8 Logistics requirements .............................................................................................117
PART C. TESTING....................................................................................................................................119
8 THERMO-MECHANICAL-PHYSICAL TEST METHODS - OVERVIEW ...........................................119
8.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................119
8.1.1 Building block approach ...........................................................................................119
8.1.2 Test level and data uses...........................................................................................119
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Volume 5, Foreword / Table of Contents
viii
8.1.2.1 Structural complexity levels ................................................................... 120
8.1.2.2 Data application categories ................................................................... 121
8.1.2.2.1 Screening tests......................................................................... 121
8.1.2.2.2 Material qualification tests........................................................ 121
8.1.2.2.3 Acceptance tests ...................................................................... 122
8.1.2.2.4 Equivalence tests ..................................................................... 122
8.2 TEST PROGRAM PLANNING............................................................................................... 122
8.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 122
8.2.2 Baseline and alternate approaches for statistically-based properties..................... 123
8.2.3 Issues of data equivalence...................................................................................... 123
8.2.4 Test method selection.............................................................................................. 123
8.2.5 Population sampling and sizing............................................................................... 123
8.2.6 Material and processing variation ........................................................................... 123
8.2.7 Material operating limit ............................................................................................ 123
8.2.8 Non ambient testing ................................................................................................ 123
8.2.9 Data normalization .................................................................................................. 123
8.2.10 Data documentation .............................................................................................. 123
8.2.11 Application specific testing needs.......................................................................... 123
8.3 RECOMMENDED TEST MATRICES .................................................................................... 123
8.3.1 Material screening ................................................................................................... 123
8.3.2 Material qualification................................................................................................ 124
8.3.3 Material acceptance test matrices........................................................................... 124
8.3.4 Alternate material equivalence test matrices .......................................................... 124
8.3.5 Generic material/structural element test matrices................................................... 125
8.3.6 Alternate approaches to basis values ..................................................................... 125
8.3.7 Data substantiation for use of MIL-HDBK-17 basis values ..................................... 125
8.4 DATA REDUCTION AND DOCUMENTATION....................................................................... 126
8.4.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. 126
8.4.2 Layer properties from composites........................................................................... 126
8.4.3 Data normalization .................................................................................................. 126
8.4.3.1 Normalization theory.............................................................................. 126
8.4.3.2 Normalization methodology ................................................................... 126
8.4.3.3 Practical application of normalization theory ......................................... 128
8.4.4 Data documentation requirements .......................................................................... 128
9 MATERIAL TESTING & CHARACTERIZATION FOR SUBMISSION OF DATA TO MIL-HDBK-17. 129
9.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 129
9.2 MATERIAL AND PROCESS SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS ....................................... 129
9.3 DATA SAMPLING REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 129
9.4 TEST METHOD REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................... 129
9.4.1 Thermal ................................................................................................................... 129
9.4.1.1 Conductivity ........................................................................................... 129
9.4.1.1.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 129
9.4.1.1.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 129
9.4.1.1.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 129
9.4.1.1.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 129
9.4.1.1.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 130
9.4.1.2 Diffusivity ............................................................................................... 130
9.4.1.2.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 130
9.4.1.2.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 132
9.4.1.2.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 132
9.4.1.2.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 132
9.4.1.2.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 132
9.4.1.3 Expansion .............................................................................................. 132
9.4.1.3.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 132
9.4.1.3.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 134
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Volume 5, Foreword / Table of Contents
ix
9.4.1.3.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 134
9.4.1.3.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 134
9.4.1.3.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 134
9.4.1.4 Specific heat .......................................................................................... 134
9.4.1.4.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 134
9.4.1.4.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 137
9.4.1.4.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.4.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 137
9.4.1.4.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.5 Thermal shock ....................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.5.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 137
9.4.1.5.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 137
9.4.1.5.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.5.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 137
9.4.1.5.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.6 Thermal fatigue...................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.6.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 137
9.4.1.6.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 137
9.4.1.6.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 137
9.4.1.6.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 138
9.4.1.6.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 138
9.4.2 Mechanical .............................................................................................................. 138
9.4.2.1 Tension .................................................................................................. 138
9.4.2.1.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 138
9.4.2.1.1.1 In-plane monotonic tensile strength (ambient
temperature)........................................................................ 138
9.4.2.1.1.2 In-plane monotonic tensile strength (elevated
temperature)........................................................................ 140
9.4.2.1.1.3 Trans-thickness monotonic tensile strength
(ambient temperature)......................................................... 142
9.4.2.1.1.4 Trans-thickness monotonic tensile strength
(elevated temperature)........................................................ 142
9.4.2.1.1.5 Cyclic fatigue (ambient temperature) ............................ 142
9.4.2.1.1.6 Cyclic fatigue (elevated temperature) ........................... 144
9.4.2.1.1.7 Creep............................................................................. 144
9.4.2.1.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 146
9.4.2.1.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 146
9.4.2.1.3.1 Monotonic tensile strength (ambient temperature) ....... 146
9.4.2.1.3.2 Monotonic tensile strength (elevated temperature)....... 148
9.4.2.1.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 148
9.4.2.1.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 148
9.4.2.2 Compression.......................................................................................... 148
9.4.2.2.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 148
9.4.2.2.2 In-plane monotonic compressive strength (ambient
temperature)......................................................................... 148
9.4.2.2.3 Matrix........................................................................................ 150
9.4.2.2.4 Fiber ......................................................................................... 150
9.4.2.2.5 Interphase ................................................................................ 150
9.4.2.2.6 Overcoat................................................................................... 150
9.4.2.3 Shear ..................................................................................................... 150
9.4.2.3.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 150
9.4.2.3.1.1 In-plane monotonic shear strength (ambient
temperature)........................................................................ 150
9.4.2.3.1.2 In-plane monotonic shear strength (elevated
temperature)........................................................................ 152
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9.4.2.3.1.3 Interlaminar monotonic shear strength (ambient
temperature)........................................................................ 152
9.4.2.3.1.4 Interlaminar monotonic shear strength (elevated
temperature)........................................................................ 154
9.4.2.3.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 154
9.4.2.3.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 154
9.4.2.3.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 154
9.4.2.3.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 154
9.4.2.4 Flexure................................................................................................... 154
9.4.2.4.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 154
9.4.2.4.1.1 Monotonic flexural strength (ambient temperature) ...... 154
9.4.2.4.1.2 Monotonic flexural strength (elevated
temperature)........................................................................ 157
9.4.2.4.1.3 Monotonic shear strength (ambient temperature) ......... 160
9.4.2.4.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 162
9.4.2.4.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 162
9.4.2.4.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 162
9.4.2.4.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 162
9.4.2.5 Fracture ................................................................................................. 162
9.4.2.5.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 162
9.4.2.5.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 162
9.4.2.5.3 CMC fiber ................................................................................. 162
9.4.2.5.4 CMC interphase ....................................................................... 162
9.4.2.5.5 CMC overcoats......................................................................... 162
9.4.3 Physical ................................................................................................................... 162
9.4.3.1 Density................................................................................................... 162
9.4.3.1.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 163
9.4.3.1.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 165
9.4.3.1.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 165
9.4.3.1.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.1.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 167
9.4.3.2 Electrical ................................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.2.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 167
9.4.3.2.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.2.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 167
9.4.3.2.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.2.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 167
9.4.3.3 Elastic constants.................................................................................... 167
9.4.3.3.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 167
9.4.3.3.2 Matrix........................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.3.3 Fiber ......................................................................................... 167
9.4.3.3.4 Interphase ................................................................................ 167
9.4.3.3.5 Overcoat................................................................................... 168
9.4.3.4 Volume fraction ...................................................................................... 168
9.4.3.4.1 Bulk CMC ................................................................................. 168
9.4.3.5 Dimensions ............................................................................................ 170
9.4.3.5.1 Matrix (grain size)..................................................................... 170
9.4.3.5.2 Fiber (diameter)........................................................................ 170
9.4.4 Chemical Properties................................................................................................ 172
9.4.5 Electrical Properties ................................................................................................ 172
9.4.6 Environmental Testing ............................................................................................. 172
10 EVALUATION OF REINFORCEMENTS ........................................................................................ 173
10.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 173
10.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES............................................................................................. 173
10.2.1 Elastic (Poisson’s Ratio, modulus)........................................................................ 173
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10.2.2 Strength (FT, RT)................................................................................................... 173
10.2.3 Creep/creep rupture .............................................................................................. 173
10.2.4 Fatigue .................................................................................................................. 173
10.3 THERMAL PROPERTIES.................................................................................................... 173
10.3.1 Expansion.............................................................................................................. 173
10.3.2 Conductivity........................................................................................................... 173
10.3.3 Environmental (corrosion, erosion, wear, etc.)...................................................... 173
10.3.4 Oxidation ............................................................................................................... 173
11 EVALUATION OF MATRIX MATERIALS........................................................................................ 173
11.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 174
11.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ............................................................................................. 174
11.2.1 Elastic (Poisson’s Ratio, modulus) ........................................................................ 174
11.2.2 Strength (HT, RT)................................................................................................... 174
11.2.3 Creep/creep rupture .............................................................................................. 174
11.2.4 Fatigue................................................................................................................... 174
11.3 THERMAL PROPERTIES.................................................................................................... 174
11.3.1 Expansion.............................................................................................................. 174
11.3.2 Conductivity ........................................................................................................... 174
11.3.3 Environmental (corrosion, erosion, wear, etc.) ...................................................... 174
11.3.4 Oxidation ............................................................................................................... 174
11.3.5 Other physical (powder or preform char.).............................................................. 174
12 EVALUATION OF INTERFACE MATERIAL ................................................................................... 174
13 EVALUATION OF COMPOSITES .................................................................................................. 175
13.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 175
13.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES............................................................................................. 175
13.2.1 Elastic (Poisson’s Ratio, modulus)........................................................................ 175
13.2.2 Strength (HT, RT) ILT/ILS ...................................................................................... 175
13.2.3 Creep/creep rupture .............................................................................................. 175
13.2.4 Fatigue .................................................................................................................. 175
13.2.5 Open-hole tension/compression strength (notch sensitivity) ................................ 175
13.2.6 Interfacial shear properties.................................................................................... 175
13.3 ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES...................................................................................... 175
13.3.1 Thermal expansion................................................................................................ 175
13.3.2 Conductivity........................................................................................................... 175
13.3.3 Environmental (corrosion, erosion, wear, salt fog, etc. ......................................... 175
13.3.4 Environmental effects (oxidation, corrosion, etc. ) ................................................ 176
13.3.5 Oxidation ............................................................................................................... 176
13.4 REACTIONS AT THE INTERFACE (DEBONDING, DIFFUSION, ETC.) (7.9) .................... 176
13.5 THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE ...................................................................................... 176
13.6 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES............................................................................................... 176
13.7 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES ............................................................................................... 176
13.8 IMPACT RESISTANCE........................................................................................................ 176
13.9 STATIC AND DYNAMIC FATIGUE ...................................................................................... 176
13.10 PROPORTIONAL LIMIT .................................................................................................... 176
13.11 INTERLAMINAR SHEAR PROPERTIES........................................................................... 176
13.12 STRAIN AT FRACTURE.................................................................................................... 176
13.13 STRESS-STRAIN CURVES.............................................................................................. 177
14 SUBCOMPONENT TESTING – OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM........................................................ 177
14.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 177
14.2 JOINT TESTING.................................................................................................................. 177
14.2.1 Definitions.............................................................................................................. 177
14.2.2 Failure modes........................................................................................................ 177
14.2.3 Thermal effects...................................................................................................... 177
14.2.4 Joint configurations ............................................................................................... 177
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14.2.5 Design requirements ............................................................................................. 177
14.2.6 Material bearing strength ...................................................................................... 177
14.2.7 Open-hole tension/compression strength ............................................................. 177
14.2.8 Thermal-mechanical fatigue strength.................................................................... 177
14.2.9 Creep and stress rupture ...................................................................................... 177
14.2.10 Fastener qualification tests ................................................................................. 178
14.3 TUBES................................................................................................................................. 178
15 MACHINING & GRINDING............................................................................................................. 178
15.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 178
15.2 MACHINING CONSIDERATIONS....................................................................................... 178
15.3 TOOLING REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................... 178
15.4 SPECIMEN PREPARATION................................................................................................ 178
PART D. DATA REQUIREMENTS AND DATA SETS .............................................................................. 180
16 DATA SUBMISSION, FORMAT AND REQUIREMENTS................................................................ 180
16.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 180
16.2 PURPOSE ........................................................................................................................... 180
16.3 FORMAT AND UNITS.......................................................................................................... 180
16.4 DESIGN PROPERTIES....................................................................................................... 205
17 STATISTICAL METHODS .............................................................................................................. 205
17.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 205
17.1.1 An overview of methods for calculating statistically based
properties ............................................................................................................. 205
17.1.2 Computer software................................................................................................ 205
17.1.3 Symbols................................................................................................................. 205
17.1.4 Statistical terms ..................................................................................................... 205
17.2 BACKGROUND................................................................................................................... 205
17.2.1 Statistically-based design allowables.................................................................... 205
17.2.2 Basis values for unstructured data........................................................................ 205
17.2.3 Basis values in the presence of batch-to-batch variability .................................... 205
17.2.4 Batches, panels, and confounding........................................................................ 205
17.2.5 Sample size guidelines for determining basis values ........................................... 206
17.3 CALCULATION OF STATISTICALLY BASED MATERIAL PROPERTIES.......................... 206
17.3.1 Guide to computational procedures ...................................................................... 206
17.3.2 Subpopulation compatibility – structured or unstructured..................................... 206
17.3.3 Detecting outliers................................................................................................... 206
17.3.4 Basis values for unstructured data........................................................................ 206
17.3.5 Basis values for structured data............................................................................ 206
17.3.6 Exploratory data analysis ...................................................................................... 206
17.3.7 Examples of computational procedures................................................................ 206
17.4 MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICAL METHODS.................................................................... 206
17.4.1 Confidence intervals for the coefficient of variation .............................................. 206
17.4.2 Statistical procedures for process control ............................................................. 206
17.4.3 Alternate material statistical procedures ............................................................... 206
17.4.4 Typical stress-strain curves................................................................................... 207
17.5 STATISTICAL TABLES AND APPROXIMATIONS............................................................... 207
18 CMC PROPERTY DATA................................................................................................................. 207
18.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 207
18.1.1 Organization of data in handbook ......................................................................... 207
18.1.2 Presentation of data .............................................................................................. 207
18.1.3 Material coding and documentation ...................................................................... 207
18.1.4 Materials systems codes....................................................................................... 207
18.1.5 Material orientation codes ..................................................................................... 207
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18.1.6 Symbols, Abbreviations, and systems of units...................................................... 207
18.1.7 Definitions.............................................................................................................. 207
18.2 CMC SYSTEMS - PROPERTY DATA ................................................................................. 207
18.2.1 CMC system #1..................................................................................................... 208
18.2.2 CMC system #2..................................................................................................... 212
18.2.3 CMC system #3..................................................................................................... 218
18.2.4 CMC system #4..................................................................................................... 224
18.2.5 CMC system #5..................................................................................................... 227
18.2.6 CMC system #6..................................................................................................... 233
APPENDIX A. DERIVATION OF THE RESIDUAL STRENGTH REDUCTION EXPRESSIONS FOR
LCF AND RUPTURE LOADINGS............................................................................................................. 239
INDEX.................................................................................................................................................. 243
CONCLUDING MATERIAL.................................................................................................................. 245
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